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Original Article
Varsha V Sobha, NK Sapna Varma, VV Ajith

Comparative Evaluation of Laser Etching and Acid Etching: An in vitro Study

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:37] [Pages No:6-11][No of Hits : 2470]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recent innovations in bonding propose laser ablation as an alternative method to acid etching. Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the effect of laser irradiation at medium-short pulse (MSP) mode, quantum-square pulse (QSP) mode, and acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets to enamel.

Materials and methods: Forty-two premolars were allocated to three groups (14 each): (1) 37% phosphoric acid etching; (2) erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser etching with MSP mode; (3) Er:YAG laser etching with quantum- square pulse mode. Metallic brackets were bonded with Transbond XT. After photo polymerization, the SBS values were recorded with universal testing machine. Surface morphology was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining adhesive was assessed using adhesive remnant index (ARI).

Results: Nonparametric test was used to analyze the statistical significance. A mean rank of 18.29 and 10.71 was obtained for QSP mode and acid etching with p = 0.015, 18.14; and 10.86 for MSP mode and acid etching with p = 0.019; and 14 and 15 for QSP mode and MSP mode with p = 0.748. Statistically significant difference was found between laser and acid-etched group. The SEM scan showed MSP mode with regular and uniform surface, like acid-etched sample, whereas QSP samples had irregular and severely rough surface. The ARI indicates that failure sites are mainly at the enamel/adhesive interface in the acid-etched and MSP mode group and at the bracket base/adhesive interface in QSP mode group.

Conclusion: Laser etching in MSP mode is a successful alternative to acid etching, and provides a safer debonding of the brackets from the enamel surface without causing fractures.

Keywords: Acid etching, Bonding, Laser, Shear bond strength.

How to cite this article: Sobha VV, Varma NKS, Ajith VV. Comparative Evaluation of Laser Etching and Acid Etching: An in vitro Study. Int J Laser Dent 2016;6(1):6-11.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
SS Suprith, Swati Setty, Srinath Thakur

Diode Laser as an Adjunctive to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy during Maintenance Phase: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:37] [Pages No:12-17][No of Hits : 1024]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine and compare the pocket depths (PD), relative attachment levels (RAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices (PI) in patients treated with scaling and root planning (SRP) alone and along with diode laser.

Materials and methods: The study was carried out on 30 subjects who fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group I: 15 patients treated with SRP along with diode laser irradiation. Group II: 15 patients treated only with SRP. The clinical parameters were probing PD, RAL, BOP and PI which were recorded at base line, 7 days and after 1 month. Statistical analysis was done using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, t-test, chi-square test.

Results: The use of diode lasers as an adjunct to SRP during maintenance phase showed better results when compared to SRP alone. Moderate periodontal pockets with moderate attachment loss showed significant improvement in group I than in group II. There was no change in deep pockets with severe attachment loss in both groups.

Clinical significance: The study shows that the specified laser parameter and the modality of application of the same results in faster healing. This can be recommended as an appropriate treatment for moderate pockets.

Keywords: Dental laser, Laser dentistry, Laser dentistry treatments, Laser uses in dentistry.

How to cite this article: Suprit SS, Setty S, Thakur S. Diode Laser as an Adjunctive to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy during Maintenance Phase: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Int J Laser Dent 2016;6(1):12-17.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
AR Prabhakar, Amitha M Shagale, Chandrashekar Yavagal

Histological Evaluation of a Novel Pulpotomy Technique with Low-level Laser Therapy and Its Comparison with Formocresol: A Randomized Animal Trial

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:37] [Pages No:1-5][No of Hits : 873]


ABSTRACT

Aim: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been increasingly used over the past few decades in both medicine and dentistry. It has been suggested that LLLT may be helpful in pulpal wound healing following pulp exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histological changes in dental pulp tissue after a pulpotomy procedure using a low-level diode laser in comparison with the gold standard formocresol.

Materials and methods: In this experimental split-mouth study, 20 teeth were randomly selected from five dogs. The animals were anesthetized and pulpotomized using a low-level diode laser (660 nm, 36 mW) and formocresol respectively. One week later, the pulpotomized teeth were extracted and subjected to histological evaluation. Histological changes seen in the pulp tissues of all the interventional groups were subjected to statistical analysis using Mann–Whitney U test for pairwise comparison; p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and p > 0.05 nonsignificant.

Results: On histologic evaluation, least amount of inflammation and maximal healing was evident in the LLLT group. On the contrary, the formocresol group showed severe inflammation.

Conclusion: Low-level laser therapy promises to be a safe, minimally invasive, yet maximally effective modality for pulpotomy.

Keywords: Formocresol, Low-level laser therapy, Pulpotomy medicament.

How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Shagale AM, Yavagal C. Histological Evaluation of a Novel Pulpotomy Technique with Low-level Laser Therapy and Its Comparison with Formocresol: A Randomized Animal Trial. Int J Laser Dent 2016;6(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Evriklia Kourti, Ourania Pantelidou, Antonis Kallis

Removal Efficiency of Calcium Hydroxide Intracanal Medicament with Er:YAG Laser: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:37] [Pages No:24-30][No of Hits : 802]


ABSTRACT

Aim: This ex vivo study compared the efficiency of Er:YAG laser to remove calcium hydroxide from root canal walls, especially from the apical third, with manual and ultrasonic irrigation technique by using a scanning electron microscopic (SEM).

Materials and methods: Sixty-four single-rooted teeth were divided into 3 groups of 20 teeth each. The rest 4 teeth were used as control groups (2 positive and 2 negative control group). After coronal access, all teeth were instrumented by Protaper Next rotary files (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F3, followed an irrigation protocol and filled with pure calcium hydroxide powder mixed with saline. Teeth were stored in an incubator for 7 days and then calcium hydroxide was removed using 3 techniques: Manually (group I), by ultrasonic irrigation (group II), by laser Er:YAG and x-pulse tip (group III). The teeth of control groups were instrumented as the experimental groups; no removal technique was applied in positive group, whereas in negative one, the root canals were left empty. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally and observed under SEM. Results were statistically analyzed with the Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney test.

Results: The results showed significant difference between laser and the other two groups in coronal and middle root third, but no statistic difference in apical third.

Conclusion: Laser improved the removal of calcium hydroxide in comparison with conventional techniques.

Key words: Calcium hydroxide, Removal methods, Root canal, Scanning electron microscopy.

How to cite this article: Kourti E, Pantelidou O, Kallis A. Removal Efficiency of Calcium Hydroxide Intracanal Medicament with Er:YAG Laser: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study. Int J Laser Dent 2016;6(1):24-30.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Shweta Sabnis, GV Gayathri, Khyati K Chandra, Dhoom S Mehta

Comparison of Adhesion of Blood Components on Root Surfaces treated with Citric Acid, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and CO2 Lasers: An in vitro Analysis

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:37] [Pages No:18-23][No of Hits : 687]


ABSTRACT

Objectives: Erstwhile studies have emphasized the importance of establishing a secure fibrin linkage between the tooth-soft tissue interface for formation of a new connective attachment. Thus, periodontal regeneration is reliant on the constant adhesion, maturation and absorption of fibrin clots to the root surfaces which are compromised periodontally. Improved fibrin clot formation and blood cell attachment is being aimed by modification of the root surfaces with different agents. Limited studies have evaluated the attachment of blood cell component on various laser treated root surfaces individually.
Hence, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the adhesion of blood components on the root surfaces treated with citric acid, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG and CO2 lasers by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Materials and methods: The proposed study was conducted on 35 root specimens (5 × 5 × 1 mm) obtained from extracted periodontally compromised permanent teeth. The root specimens were randomly divided in five groups depending upon the type of treatment rendered. Group I: Untreated control group, group II: Citric acid (pH:1), group III: Nd:YAG laser (112.5 m J/ pulse), group IV: CO2 laser (12.5 J/cm2), group V: Er:YAG laser (120 m J). Following the respective treatments, fresh human whole peripheral blood obtained from a healthy donor was applied to the external surface of all root specimens. The specimens were then analysed and scored for the adhesion of the blood components with photomicrographs of SEM.

Results: Statistically significant increase in the adhesion of blood components was seen in all the test groups compared to control group both citric acid and Er:YAG laser showed higher adhesion of blood cells to the root surface than the Nd:YAG laser and CO2 laser.

Conclusion: Er:YAG laser enhanced the adhesion of blood components over the treated root surfaces. Hence, it can be safely used as a root bio-modifier ensuring stable fibrin linkage to promote periodontal regeneration.

Keywords: Blood, Clot, CO2 lasers Er:YAG, Fibrin, Nd:YAG.

How to cite this article: Sabnis S, Gayathri GV, Chandra KK, Mehta DS. Comparison of Adhesion of Blood Components on Root Surfaces treated with Citric Acid, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and CO2 Lasers: An in vitro Analysis. Int J Laser Dent 2016;6(1):18-23.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Antonis Kallis, Kosmas Tolidis, Paris Gerasimou, Nor Gutknecht, Eugenia Koliniotou-Koumpia

Comparative Study of the Restoration Quality in Cavities prepared with Er:YAG Laser in Quantum Square Pulse Mode and Conventional Method

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:37] [Pages No:31-37][No of Hits : 568]


ABSTRACT

Nowadays, dental treatment has been enriched by the use of lasers. The introduction of the novel treatment parameter of quantum square pulse (QSP) constitutes an additional challenge to older techniques, promising minimally invasive treatments. The aim of this study is to comparatively investigate the quality of cavity preparations using erbium-doped yttrium-aluminumgarnet (Er:YAG) laser with QSP technology as opposed to the conventional bur. The Er:YAG laser (2940 nm) has been used at 120 mJ energy level in QSP and medium short pulse (125 ìs) modes. Subsequently, the dentin and enamel surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy techniques and compared with cuttings prepared with conventional bur. The laser-treated dentin samples exhibited relatively homogenous surfaces without smear layer and with open dentinal tubules. Laser-treated enamel showed scaly surfaces but again free of smear layer. In contrast, both dentin and enamel samples treated with the conventional bur showed abundance of smear layer, groove marks, small-scale cracks, and closed dentinal tubules.

Keywords: Er:YAG laser, Quantum square pulses, Scanning electron microscopy.

How to cite this article: Kallis A, Tolidis K, Gerasimou P, Gutknecht N, Koliniotou-Koumpia E. Comparative Study of the Restoration Quality in Cavities prepared with Er:YAG Laser in Quantum Square Pulse Mode and Conventional Method. Int J Laser Dent 2016;6(1):31-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Vidyaa Hari Iyer, Sujatha Sudarsan

A Comprehensive Treatment Protocol for Lingual Frenectomy with Combination of Lasers and Speech Therapy: Two Case Reports

[Year:2015] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:32] [Pages No:12-21][No of Hits : 5431]


ABSTRACT

Lingual frenectomy is the procedure that involves removal of a band of tissue, the lingual frenulum which connects the tongue with floor of the mouth. The procedure is generally safe, but caution is necessary as it can cause severe, permanent or untreatable pain, and nerve damage. This procedure could be partial removal of frenum or repositioning of the frenum termed as “frenoplasty” or “frenotomy”, and complete removal of frenum termed as “frenectomy”. Laser frenectomy results are in a lower risk of relapse, such as adhesion, and hence the prognosis is superior to those treated by traditional methods. This article highlights the advantages of using lasers as a treatment option for lingual frenectomy and aftercare with speech therapy for rehabilitation of the patients.

Keywords: Articulation disorders, Frenectomy, Frenoplasty, Frenotomy, Frenulectomy, Frenulotomy, Lingual frenum, Speech therapy.

How to cite this article: Iyer VH, Sudarsan S. A Comprehensive Treatment Protocol for Lingual Frenectomy with Combination of Lasers and Speech Therapy: Two Case Reports. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(1):12-21.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Bhagyashree R Kohale, Amit A Agrawal, Amit B Sope, Kshitij V Pardeshi, Chetan P Raut

Low-level Laser Therapy: A Literature Review

[Year:2015] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:32] [Pages No:1-5][No of Hits : 1341]


ABSTRACT

LASER is an acronym for “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.” The arena of lasers has expanded to include light-emitting diodes and other sources of light. Various wavelengths used are in the range of red and near infrared spectrum. Each wavelength has a unique interaction with the respective target tissues. High doses of laser have certain drawbacks and, in order to overcome these issues, widespread research is going on low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Low-level laser therapy results in direct biostimulation action on various cells of the body. It is reported that LLLT could enhance the process of wound healing and also has stimulating effects on bone cells and can hasten the repair process of the bone. In spite of many reports of affirmative findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models, and in randomized controlled clinical trials, the effects of LLLT remain debatable. On the contrary, additional research still needs to be done in order to check the efficacy for periodontal treatment. This article focuses on the effects of LLLT on various tissues, its dosage, mechanisms of action, and applications in the field of dentistry.

Keywords: Biostimulation, Low-level laser therapy, Wound healing.

How to cite this article: Kohale BR, Agrawal AA, Sope AB, Pardeshi KV, Raut CP. Low-level Laser Therapy: A Literature Review. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Urmi Bhattacharyya, Anisha Shah, Suchetan Pradhan

Erbium Laser-assisted Closed-flap Crown Lengthening: A Review of the Literature

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:3] [Pages:20] [Pages No:63-67][No of Hits : 661]


ABSTRACT

Crown lengthening is a preprosthetic surgical procedure that results in the exposure of more tooth structure and reestablishment of a more apical gingival margin. Traditionally, it is an open-flap surgical procedure. Smile designing is becoming an increasingly popular treatment option, and the use of lasers for a crown lengthening greatly enhances the patient acceptability while reducing chairside time. There are no controlled studies for this application of lasers, however, a number of clinical case reports do exist. This article mainly focuses on reviewing all the current literature on crown lengthening performed by erbium lasers and exploring the process to achieve the best results.

Keywords: Closed-flap, Crown lengthening, Dental laser application, Erbium lasers.

How to cite this article: Bhattacharyya U, Shah A, Pradhan S. Erbium Laser-assisted Closed-flap Crown Lengthening: A Review of the Literature. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(3):63-67.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Megha Sharma

An 810-nm Diode Laser for the Treatment of Mucocele

[Year:2015] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:32] [Pages No:22-25][No of Hits : 540]


ABSTRACT

Mucoceles are common benign lesions of the oral cavity that develop because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and are usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lips. Ruptured ducts release the mucous that accumulates into adjacent tissues leading to swelling. Mucoceles are painless and tend to relapse. The purpose of this report is to describe a clinical case of an 11-year-old male child with a 5-mm mucocele on the lower lip treated with a diode laser. Some important concepts are discussed in this report to help the pedodontist in diagnosis and treatment of this pathology with comfort and ease.

Keywords: Diode laser, Extravasation cyst, Mucocele.

How to cite this article: Sharma M. An 810-nm Diode Laser for the Treatment of Mucocele. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(1):22-25.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Vidyaa Hari Iyer, Sana Farista

Management of Hyperpigmentation of Lips with 940 nm Diode Laser: Two Case Reports

[Year:2014] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:31-38][No of Hits : 7143]


ABSTRACT

Lip hyperpigmentation is an issue with the young adults when the dark brown patch on the lips makes an unsightly appearance. The laser energy is selectively absorbed by the melanin that causes pigmentation. This causes a photothermal ablation of melanocytes which leads to its disruption and subsequent removal by the body’s immune system. It generally takes one to three treatments to lighten or remove unwanted pigmentation with laser. With most laser lip pigmentation removal, the pigmentation becomes darker for approximately 1 week and then flakes off. The treatments are spaced at least 1 month apart. There is also usually some redness and mild swelling in the treatment areas for a few days after treatment. The previous studies reported 100% clearance of pigmentation of the lips with a single laser treatment, and recurrence was not observed even after 6 months. This article highlights the use of 940 nm diode dental lasers for lip depigmentation procedure. Dental diode lasers have become a universal alternative tool for esthetic corrections of the oral cavity.

Keywords: Laser depigmentation, Melasma, Lip depigmentation, Diode lasers, Esthetic correction, Melanin, Hyperpigmentation.

How to cite this article:Iyer VH, Farista S. Management of Hyperpigmentation of Lips with 940 nm Diode Laser: Two Case Reports. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(1):31-38.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Research Article
Arulmozhi Nandakumar, Vidyaa Hari Iyer

In vitro Analysis Comparing Efficacy of Lasers and Desensitizing Agents on Dentin Tubule Occlusion: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

[Year:2014] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:1-7][No of Hits : 4533]


ABSTRACT

Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH), one of the commonest causes of dental pain, arises from exposure of dentinal tubules most commonly in the cervical region of the buccal and facial surfaces of the tooth in response to typically thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic or chemical stimulus. This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG (dual lasers - hard and soft tissue) and diode lasers (soft tissue lasers) against clinically proven dentifrices prescribed by dentists, easily available over the counter, in treating DH. In 60 recently extracted human teeth, cervical cavities were prepared and etched with 17% EDTA to expose the tubules and eliminate smear layer. The teeth were further divided into groups: Er,Cr:YSGG laser, diode laser and commonly used dentifrices chosen on the basis of previous studies. After treatment, the teeth were subjected for scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis on the same day for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the specimens. Quantitative analysis of the SEM images was done using image analysis software. Er,Cr:YSGG showed superior results in terms of number of tubules per millimeter square, tubule diameter and tubular area. Laser treatment of exposed dentinal tubules with Er,Cr:YSGG promises a noninvasive, pain free and relatively safe treatment option.

Keywords: Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Dentinal hypersensitivity, Scanning electron microscope, Dentinal tubule occlusion, Diode lasers, Pain-free dentistry.

How to cite this article: Nandakumar A, Iyer VH. In vitro Analysis Comparing Efficacy of Lasers and Desensitizing Agents on Dentin Tubule Occlusion: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(1):1-7.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Case Report
Vidyaa Hari Iyer

Er,Cr:YSGG Laser as a Treatment Option for Operculectomy in Children

[Year:2014] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:39-42][No of Hits : 2906]


ABSTRACT

Erbium lasers belong to the mid infrared nonionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Erbium family of lasers consists of Er,Cr:YSGG - 2780 nm wavelength and Er:YAG - 2940 nm wavelength. These wavelengths are absorbed better by hydroxyapatite and water which are the chromophore in the host tissue. The thick soft tissue covering an erupting tooth is generally treated by conventional surgical excision. Another option available is excision using lasers. Various soft tissue lasers, such as diode laser, have been used for this procedure. A new addition to this generation of lasers is Er,Cr:YSGG laser. This article highlights the use of Er,Cr:YSGG in treatment of operculectomy in children. The child did not experience any pain even without the administration of injections, or bleeding during the procedure and was immensely impressed with the excellent healing outcome.

Keywords: Erbium laser, Hydrophotonic effect, Painfree dentistry, Pediatric operculectomy procedure.

How to cite this article: Iyer VH. Er,Cr:YSGG Laser as a Treatment Option for Operculectomy in Children. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(1):39-42.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Review Article
Nubesh Khan S, Fahanna Beegum

Photodynamic Therapy: A Targeted Therapy in Periodontics

[Year:2014] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:26-30][No of Hits : 2896]


ABSTRACT

Advances in research are provided by techniques that were forgotten for many decades and innovative procedures to clinical application. With the increase of microbial resistance and development of lighting devices with safe and accurate delivery of energy, today professionals can count on therapies to manage pathogens in different fields of dentistry, especially periodontics and peri-implantitis. When the therapeutic resources have been exhausted, other alternatives can be considered, as the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Photodynamic therapy is a novel noninvasive therapeutic approach with increased pathogen and site specificity. Photodynamic therapy involves use of photosensitizer that is activated by exposure to light of specific wavelength to form toxic oxygen species thereby causing localized photo damage and cell death. Application of photodynamic therapy in periodontics, such as pocket debridement, gingivitis, aggressive periodontitis continue to evolve into a mature clinical treatment modality, and is considered as a promising novel approach for eradicating pathogenic bacteria in periodontitis.

Keywords: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, Laser, Periodontitis, Photosensitizer.

How to cite this article: Khan NS, Beegum F. Photodynamic Therapy: A Targeted Therapy in Periodontics. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(1):26-30.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Research Article
Chellavignesh Sathyanarayanan, Vidyaa Hari Iyer

A Comparative in vivo Study between the Conventional Method and Diode Lasers in Treatment of Gingival Pigmentation

[Year:2014] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:8-19][No of Hits : 2142]


ABSTRACT

Esthetic dentistry has positively influenced the overall appearance of an individual and contributed to an enhancement of psychological factors, such as self-esteem, self-confidence and a boost in one’s lifestyle. Gingival color is attributed by the presence or absence of the melanocytes which is present in the basal layer of the epithelium. An increase in the number of melanocytes along with increase in production of melanin (a dark colored pigment) contribute to the dark hue of the gingival color. Such hyperpigmentation is unesthetic which indirectly brings down the smile and confidence in a person. This article aims to bring the effectiveness of laser treatment by a comparative In vivo study between the conventional methods (use of abrasives) vs 940 nm diode soft tissue lasers in the same patient in two quadrants of their mouth. Ten patients aged between 18 and 21 years were taken into the study. This study also emphasized the psychological factors in addition to the advantage of the treatment using lasers which has made dentistry a pleasurable experience for the patient and the dentist.

Keywords: Dental lasers, Gingival depigmentation, Esthetic dentistry, Racial gingival hyperpigmentation, Pain-free dentistry.

How to cite this article: Sathyanarayanan C, Iyer VH. A Comparative in vivo Study between the Conventional Method and Diode Lasers in Treatment of Gingival Pigmentation. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(1):8-19.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Research Article
Rakesh Mittal, Meenu G Singla, Ashima Sood, Ankur Dua, Prabhjot S Sodhi

Clinical Evaluation of Middle Power Output 810 nm GaAlAs Diode Laser for Treating Severe Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2014] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:20-25][No of Hits : 1916]


ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and longevity of middle power output 810 nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser in the treatment of severe dentin hypersensitivity.

Materials and methods: Forty patients were selected having severe hypersensitive teeth corresponding to 7 and above on the visual analog scale (VAS). Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) was assessed by tactile and thermal stimuli and measured by VAS. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups - treatment group (treated with GaAlAs diode laser) and control/placebo group (treated with curing light). In the treatment group, the laser used was a 810 nm GaAlAs diode laser, having a power of 0.5 W and for a duration of 2 minutes. Patients from both the groups were subjected to three sessions for treatment of dentin hypersensitivity, at intervals of 0 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. Dentin hypersensitivity was measured before and after each session and again evaluated after 12 weeks.

Results: In both the groups, mean values at 0, 24 and 48 hours showed a significant reduction in VAS scores (p-value < 0.05). Intergroup comparison showed that reduction in VAS scores was significantly more in the laser treated group. However, at 12 weeks evaluation, mean reduction in VAS scores decreased in the treatment group indicating recurrence of hypersensitivity.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that GaAlAs middle power output diode laser is effective in providing immediate relief in severe cases of dentin hypersensitivity although long-term results show recurrence of dentin hypersensitivity.

Keywords: Middle power output diode laser, Dentin hypersensitivity, Visual analog scale.

How to cite this article: Mittal R, Singla MG, Sood A, Dua A, Sodhi PS. Clinical Evaluation of Middle Power Output 810 nm GaAIAs Diode Laser for Treating Severe Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(1):20-25.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Review Article
Tarun Kalra, Malvika Nagrath, Geeta Kalra

Lasers in Prosthodontics - Part I: Implantology

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:24] [Pages No:49-53][No of Hits : 1902]


ABSTRACT

Lasers have revolutionized the dental treatment modalities and have become an inseparable part of advanced treatment options. The parallel expansion of implant dentistry and laser dentistry is quite apparent. As the laser energy is being put to use in various ways, prognosis of implant treatments is improving. This article aims to provide a comprehensive view of the use of lasers in implant dentistry including preoperative, postoperative and intraoperative clinical procedures.

Keywords: Laser energy, Pulse, Amplification.

How to cite this article: Kalra T, Nagrath M, Kalra G. Lasers in Prosthodontics - Part I: Implantology. Int J Laser Dent 2014; 4(2):49-53.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Vagish Kumar LS

Use of Lasers in the Management of Temporomandibular Disorders

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:24] [Pages No:43-48][No of Hits : 1442]


ABSTRACT

Laser therapy is commonly used in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been found to possess analgesic activity which promotes its use in various painful conditions. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are treated by various modes of management. However, LLLT appears to be an attractive noninvasive mode of treatment for these group of patients. So, need was felt to review the potential uses of lasers in patients affected by TMDs. A literature review for English language articles was conducted using the PubMed and Google Search engine using the following search terms ‘laser’, ‘TMDs’, ‘dentistry’, ‘therapy’, ‘musculoskeletal’. Low-level laser therapy appears to be a promising mode of management in relieving the symptoms of these patients.

Keywords: Laser, Temporomandibular disorders, Dentistry, Therapy, Musculoskeletal.

How to cite this article: Kumar LSV. Use of Lasers in the Management of Temporomandibular Disorders. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(2):43-48.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Abdul Ahad, Shruti Tandon, Arundeep Kaur Lamba, Farrukh Faraz

Minimally Invasive Management of Pericoronal Abscess using 810 nm GaAlAs Diode Laser

[Year:2014] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:3] [Pages:23] [Pages No:79-82][No of Hits : 1286]


ABSTRACT

Acute exacerbations of pericoronitis is associated with debilitating symptoms, and requires urgent intervention. Mechanical debridement, operculectomy and antibiotic therapy are parts of established treatment protocol, however, associated with many limitations. This report highlights successful management of a case of pericoronal abscess around mandibular third molar in a 30-year-old female, with GaAlAs diode laser-assisted disinfection and operculectomy. Although infection was initially associated with lymphadenitis and fever, postoperaive period was symptom free, even without use of antibiotics. Due to many intraoperative and postoperative advantages and better patient acceptance, diode laser has become a preferred option for minor oral surgical procedures.

Keywords: Pericoronitis, Periodontal abscess, Pericoronal abscess, Diode laser, Operculectomy.

How to cite this article: Ahad A, Tandon S, Lamba AK, Faraz F. Minimally Invasive Management of Pericoronal Abscess using 810 nm GaAlAs Diode Laser. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(3):79-82.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Amit Dahiya, Minakshi Rana, Anita Hooda, Taruna Arora, Arun Kumar

Laser Physics: Recent Clinical Trends

[Year:2014] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:3] [Pages:23] [Pages No:74-78][No of Hits : 1159]


ABSTRACT

Dental lasers are becoming an integral part of contemporary dentistry. Lasers can artistically sculpt soft tissues while providing precision, increased visibility, improved impression techniques; predictable healing with decreased scarring, reduced anesthesia and postoperative swelling. With the introduction of the hard-tissue laser, cosmetic bonding procedures are more predictable by providing enhanced bond strength, more comfortable by requiring little to no anesthesia, and less invasive via controlled removal of tooth structure. To protect the faith of patients on the clinician, we must be familiar with the fundamentals of laser physics and tissue interaction so that the proper laser device is used to obtain the treatment objective safely and effectively. This review will discuss about laser physics in detail to make its use more scientific and reliable for both clinicians and patients.

Keywords: Laser physics, Physical properties, Laser, Interaction, Tissue effects.

How to cite this article: Dahiya A, Rana M, Hooda A, Arora T, Kumar A. Laser Physics: Recent Clinical Trends. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(3):74-78.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2014] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 1132]


ABSTRACT

Dear Colleagues,

Dentistry over the years has gained recognition in the practice of medicine as a very important constituent of the individual health of a patient. But, what we have seen, in the recent past, all over the country, is that there is a lot of false, scientifically untenable and bombastic claims made by some dental practitioners and so-called ‘corporate dental chains’, in the print and other media. In fact, we have regular ads running in newspapers all over the country by various dental practices.


 
Case Report
Majety Sharath Chandragupta, Kalaimani Iyappan, Vidyaa Hari Iyer

Excision of Intraoral Fibroepithelial Polyp using 940 nm Diode Laser

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:24] [Pages No:59-63][No of Hits : 1095]


ABSTRACT

Fibroepithelial polyp or acrochordon is small benign tumor arising from tissue folds with some irritating factors enhancing it in size or shape. They are generally painless. Some patients due to esthetic concerns prefer to remove such lesions. This article is unique as an elderly male patient with no systemic conditions manifested with this lesion. He had no symptomatic concern until he wanted to wear a removable partial denture. This article highlights the use of lasers in excision of such intraoral pathological lesions. Advantages of lasers have made clinical dentistry both affordable and adorable to the patients.

Keywords: Diode laser, Fibroepithelial polyp, Painless dentistry, Minimum bleeding, Excision.

How to cite this article: Chandragupta MS, Iyappan K, Iyer VH. Excision of Intraoral Fibroepithelial Polyp using 940 nm Diode Laser. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(2):59-63.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Zeba Jafri, Nafis Ahmad, Nishat Sultan, Ashu Bhardwaj

Diode Laser-assisted Lingual Frenectomy: A Case Series

[Year:2014] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:3] [Pages:23] [Pages No:87-90][No of Hits : 1034]


ABSTRACT

A short or thick and fibrotic lingual frenum results in ankyloglossia or tongue-tie. Restricted tongue movement in ankyloglossia may at times result in speech problem with difficulty in pronunciation of some sounds, impaired mechanical cleaning of the oral cavity by free tongue movement, gingival recession or malocclusion. Thus, the surgeries for ankyloglossia can be considered at any age depending upon patient’s history of speech, mechanical and social difficulty and can be performed by scalpel, electrocautery or lasers nowadays. The paper presents report of three cases where diode laser has been used for lingual frenectomy. Diode laser has shown to be one of the excellent options for performing these surgeries with better bleeding control, excellent precision, less discomfort and short healing time.

Keywords: Ankyloglossia, Diode laser, Frenectomy.

How to cite this article: Jafri Z, Ahmad N, Sultan N, Bhardwaj A. Diode Laser-assisted Lingual Frenectomy: A Case Series. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(3):87-90.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
AR Prabhakar, Sonali Agarwal, Chandrashekar Yavagal, N Basappa

Enamel Solubility and Depth of Demineralization with Laser Bleaching and the Impact of CPP-ACP: An Optico-chemical Analysis

[Year:2014] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:3] [Pages:23] [Pages No:67-73][No of Hits : 1006]


ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine the enamel solubility and depth of demineralization with laser bleaching and impact of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) when applied prior to and after laser bleaching.

Materials and methods: The 40 specimens obtained from 10 human premolars were treated in accordance with manufacturer protocols; laser bleaching was performed using Opalescence Boost Gel (40% hydrogen peroxide) followed by laser activation using 36 mW/660 nm diode laser applied for 4 minutes at an energy fluence of 8.6 J/cm2.
The study consisted of four experimental groups are as follows:

  • Group 1: Control (laser bleaching only)
  • Group 2: Pretreatment with CPP-ACP and laser bleaching
  • Group 3: Laser bleaching and post-treatment CPP-ACP
  • Group 4: Laser bleaching and post-treatment CPP-ACP and short burst of laser.

Specimens were, thereafter, subjected to cariogenic challenge and further evaluated for enamel solubility by measuring the loss of Ca2+ ions and the depth of demineralization using polarized light microscopy.

Results: Group 4 exhibited least enamel solubility and depth of demineralization (p < 0.0001) followed by groups 3, 2 and maximum by group 1.

Conclusion: Post-laser bleaching application of CPP-ACP followed by a short burst of laser can provide exceptional resistance to enamel solubility (demineralization).

Keywords: CPP-ACP, Diode laser, Enamel solubility, Enamel demineralization, Laser bleaching, Polarized light microscopy.

How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Agarwal S, Yavagal C, Basappa N. Enamel Solubility and Depth of Demineralization with Laser Bleaching and the Impact of CPP-ACP: An Opticochemical Analysis. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(3):67-73.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Sana Farista, Butchibabu Kalakonda, Shanin Farista, Afroz Syed Ahmed

Effectiveness of 980 nm Diode Laser Therapy on Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

[Year:2014] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:3] [Pages:23] [Pages No:83-86][No of Hits : 994]


ABSTRACT

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral ulcerative lesion, often associated with stress, insomnia, trauma, etc. There are many different treatment modalities for but with partially effective treatment outcome. Therefore, the aim of this report is to review the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for effectively relieving pain and its ability to aid in faster healing of ulcers. A 21-year-old male reported with intense pain due to RAS, was managed with LLLT with laser settings at 1 W power in continuous and noncontact mode. Immediately after the irradiation, patient was absolutely free from pain after 3 and 7 days of evaluation, there was absolutely no pain with partial healing and complete re-epithelization of ulcer respectively. It can be concluded that lasers at nonablative settings in the form of LLLT provides immediate relief from pain and discomfort and aids in the rapid healing of ulcer.

Keywords: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Low-level laser therapy, Nonablative, Re-epithelization, Analgesia.

How to cite this article: Farista S, Kalakonda B, Farista S, Ahmed AS. Effectiveness of 980 nm Diode Laser Therapy on Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(3):83-86.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Vidya Bhat, Sonia Sara Jacob, Kamalakanth Shenoy

Improving Denture-bearing Area using Diode Laser

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:24] [Pages No:64-66][No of Hits : 992]


ABSTRACT

The ultimate goal of mouth preparation is to modify the oral environment to render it free of disease and make its form more compatible with the requirements of the complete dentures.
We are reporting a case of improving the denture-bearing area for a complete denture for better retention and stability. The procedures of frenectomy and vestibuloplasty in an edentulous patient were carried out using a diode laser.

Keywords: Diode laser, Frenectomy, Preprosthetic surgery.

How to cite this article: Bhat V, Jacob SS, Shenoy K. Improving Denture-bearing Area using Diode Laser. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(2):64-66.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Murali Tuppili, Butchi Babu, Uday Kiran Uppada, Sushma Naagmega, Ramesh Amirisetty

Erbium,Chromium:Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet Laser-assisted Excision of Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:24] [Pages No:54-58][No of Hits : 688]


ABSTRACT

Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a benign reactive softtissue lesion of the anterior mandible. It is a common giant cell lesion of the oral cavity whose histogenesis still continues to be a topic of debate. Clinically, the lesion is soft in consistency generally not measuring more than 2 cm and rarely causes bone or root resorption unlike central giant cell granuloma (CGCG). The treatment is usually local surgical excision down to underlying bone along with removal of any existing etiological factor to minimize risk of recurrence. Existing literature is sparse on the pros and cons of the use of a surgical laser in the management of such giant cell lesions. With the advent of new technology, lasers have taken the sheen away from scalpel. We preferred the erbium,chromium:yttrium-scandium-galliumgarnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser with a wavelength of 2780 nm which is well absorbed by water, hence minimizing any thermal damage to the soft tissues. Probably, this case report might be a first of its kind highlighting the use of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser for the excision of PGCG. Hence, this article is intended to highlight the clinical presentation and differential diagnosis of PGCG with special emphasis on the beneficial aspects of managing such lesions with Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

Keywords: Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Peripheral giant cell granuloma, Hyperplastic gingival lesion.

How to cite this article: Tuppili M, Babu B, Uppada UK, Naagmega S, Amirisetty R. Erbium,Chromium:Yttrium-Scandium- Gallium-Garnet Laser-assisted Excision of Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma. Int J Laser Dent 2014;4(2):54-58.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2014] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:3] [Pages:23] [Pages No:v][No of Hits : 512]


ABSTRACT

Technology affects our lives in a million different ways, most of it being highly beneficial and enriching our day-to-day existence. Dentistry as a field is no exception. We, as practitioners of this artistic science, must be able to adopt newer techniques and technologies to further our knowledge and delivery of the science. The advent of digital dentistry with better imaging techniques, scanners for error-free transfer of data and CAD/CAM milling units and three-dimensional printers has revolutionized and simplified our lives to a great extent. It is our duty as service-providers to embrace these wonderful innovations to make our science as close to exact as possible.


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Amrita Mehta, Siddhant Pradhan, Samved Pradhan, Suchetan Pradhan

The Oral Hygiene Habits and General Oral Awareness in Public Schools in Mumbai

[Year:2013] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:60-67][No of Hits : 7521]


ABSTRACT

This paper is based on previous research carried out on the topic of oral hygiene. In this literature review, various studies have been considered, some from outside of India as well as some from within India, which is the origin of our research. This was done to obtain a global view of the topic and also to be able to compare how Indian oral hygiene and awareness compares with the same for the rest of the world.
In a study conducted in 2011 that pertained to the oral health practices was conducted in the rural areas of the Kanchipuram District in Tamil Nadu, India. The participants were children between the ages of 5 and 10. The mean age of the children was 8.5 years and there were a total of 81 participants. The aim of this survey was ‘to evaluate the awareness and knowledge among the rural children on the dental health problems, their oral hygiene practices and the pattern of practices of dental treatment.’ A number of results pertained to the oral health practices of the participants. A number of results pertained to the oral health practices of the participants were found in the study by authors VC Punita, P Sivaprakasam, in the rural children of Kanchipuram in the year 2011.14
Out of the 81 children participating, only 51 children used toothbrushes while the rest used their fingers as a tool to clean their teeth. That accounts to only 62.96% brushing their teeth with brushes. This is attributed to the children coming from a ‘very low socioeconomic background’. It was reported that 92.59% of the participants brushed their teeth once a day and 7.40% brushed twice a day. Moreover, only 45 out of the 81 children used toothpaste (55.55%) while the rest used twigs of the Azadirachta indica plant, traditionally known as datum, in combination with chalk powder, charcoal or sand. From the children who used brushes, 50.98% of them changed their brush when it got worn out, 27.44% of the participants changed their brush every 3 to 6 months. While the rest did not know how often they changed their brush.
The author concludes that ‘by giving adequate information, motivation and practice of the measure to the subject’ this situation can be improved.
In recent study done in 2012 authors Mehta A and Kaur G, it was found that 71.4% of the participants used a toothbrush with toothpaste, which is significantly higher than the 62.69% used by participants in the previously described study.18 Moreover, in this study, only 1.4% of participants used the Azadirachta indica twigs to clean their teeth, which is a significantly better result than the previous study. In this study, 25% of participants brushed their teeth more than once a day, which is a major improvement over the 7.40%, reported in the previous experiment.
In a study conducted by Amin and Al-Asad on the ‘Oral hygiene practices, dental knowledge, dietary habits and their relation to caries among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia’ (2008). This study showed similar results in Saudi Arabia to those in the first study discussed. A total of 24.5% of the students brushed their teeth more than twice a day. However, 44.6% of the students used Malwak which is similar to the Azadirachta indica used in the first and second studies.
Another important segment of our study is tobacco use. Tobacco is classified in two forms, one which is smoked and the other which is used in forms other than being smoked. Smoked tobacco includes cigars, cigarettes, pipes, hookahs, bidis and kreteks. Smokeless forms of tobacco include betel nut, pan, pan masala and snus.
Another important study was conducted in Bangalore, which focused on various oral practices and oral health in missionary schools in Bangalore. They studied the oral health of school children of the age 11- to 12-year-old.19 From all the participants studied, 5.4% of them smoked cigarettes at least once a week while 3.9% of the chewed tobacco at least once a week. These results are eye opening as the children who took part in the experiment were 11 to 12 years old and tobacco use at such a young age is extremely harmful.
The other articles lacked knowledge about tobacco use in the participants.
Another aspect of our study is the diet of our participants. A study was conducted to compare oral habits and oral health knowledge in American school students living in Amritsar and Indian school children living in the same city.20 It was concluded that the diets of the school students compared was found to be ‘comparable.’ (Grewal and Kaur (2007). This was attributed to the urbanization of cities in India.
However, the hygiene practices in the group of Indian participants was different from that of the American participants. The author suggests the hygiene practices in the group of Indian participants have not changed over time.
The last aspect of our study is oral health knowledge. In the study conducted in the Panchkula district, it was found that 83.2% of participants knew the importance of brushing regularly.18 Moreover, 69.5% of participants stated that the importance of visiting a dentist regularly, which is to maintain healthy teeth. Around 17.6% of the participants knew the benefit of using toothpaste which contained fluoride. Lastly, 41.8% of the participants knew that the consumption of sugary foods can result in dental caries.

Keywords:Survey, Tobacco, Dental health, Oral health status, Caries, Diet.

How to cite this article: Mehta A, Pradhan S, Pradhan S, Pradhan S. The Oral Hygiene Habits and General Oral Awareness in Public Schools in Mumbai. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(2):60-67.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nikhil Vishwas Khandge, Suchetan Pradhan, Yogesh Doshi, Atul Kulkarni, Ishan Dhruva

Photodynamic Therapy (Part 1: Applications in Dentistry)

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:36] [Pages No:7-13][No of Hits : 5655]


ABSTRACT

Aim: To overview the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) along with different types of photosensitizers and the lasers associated with them.

Background: Administration of drugs for oral infections and pathologies are accompanied with a lot of limitations like lack of patient compliance, microbial resistance in the biofilm, systemic side effects, failure on the antibiotics to act on non-perfused areas, allergy and the limitation of spectrum of microorganisms affected. To overcome this, an effective and an alternative therapy needs to replace the conventional treatment. Indians since ancient past have been using the extracts of Psoralea corylifolia which contains furocoumarins, given orally, and followed by exposure to sunlight in order to treat vitiligo. Thus, PDT was investigated in the past as a promising alternative if not replacement for the conventional treatment.

Clinical significance: It has been seen that various combinations of photosensitizer and lasers are effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Porphyrin photosensitizers and temoporfin have been used successfully in the past against premalignant and malignant intraoral lesions. They are excellent options for palliative treatment for cases refractory to conventional therapy. Phenothiazinium photosensitizers like methylene blue and toluidine blue have shown to be effective against bacterias, viruses and fungal infections. Hence, they are effective tools for the treatment of refractory periodontics and endodontic infections.

Conclusion: With the revolution of lasers in the field of dentistry and oncology, a new minimally invasive and precise approach towards the pathology is being developed. However, further research needs to be done in terms of development of newer formulations and dosimetry for more consistent results free of side effects.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Porphyrin, Temoporfin, Phenothiazinium, Refractory.

How to cite this article:Khandge NV, Pradhan S, Doshi Y, Kulkarni A, Dhruva I. Photodynamic Therapy (Part 1: Applications in Dentistry). Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(1):7-13.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Review Article
Meenu Goyal, Sameer Makkar, Shinam Pasricha

Low Level Laser Therapy in Dentistry

[Year:2013] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:32] [Pages No:82-88][No of Hits : 5461]


ABSTRACT

Soon after the discovery of lasers in the 1960s it was realized that laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain, inflammation and swelling. Today, dentists have a variety of wavelengths to choose from the growing industry of lasers. Also, the field has broadened to include light-emitting diodes and other light sources, and the range of wavelengths used now includes many in the red and near infrared. Each wavelength has a unique interaction with the target tissues of the oral cavity. Laser dentistry, formerly embraced only by the speciality of oral and maxillofacial surgery, now, is positively affecting every field of dentistry. From pediatric and operative dentistry to periodontics, prosthetics to cosmetics and implantology, lasers have made a tremendous impact on the delivery of dental care in the 21st century and will continue to do so as the technology continues to improve and evolve. As low level lasers are more biocompatible than hard lasers, they are evolving rapidly. This article discusses low level laser therapy technology, its dosage, their application in every field of dentistry and risks associated with them, so that they can be used in delivery of superior dental care.

Keywords: Low level laser, Applications, Equipments.

How to cite this article: Goyal M, Makkar S, Pasricha S. Low Level Laser Therapy in Dentistry. Int J Laser Dent 2013; 3(3):82-88.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
Noopur Kaushik, Nikhil Srivastava, Mayur Kaushik, Vivek Gaurav

Efficacy of Different Techniques of Gingival Depigmentation: A Comparative Evaluation with a Case Report

[Year:2013] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:68-72][No of Hits : 5016]


ABSTRACT

Excessive gingival pigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Melanin pigmentation is known to be caused by melanin granules within the gingival epithelium. Though it is not a medical pathology, many people complain of dark gums as unesthetic. A case is reported here of hyperpigmentation treated with scalpel, diode laser and electrosurgical procedure in a split mouth design with a note on comparison of healing.

Keywords: Laser, Electrocautery, Scalpel, Depigmentation.

How to cite this article: Kaushik N, Srivastava N, Kaushik M, Gaurav V. Efficacy of Different Techniques of Gingival Depigmentation: A Comparative Evaluation with a Case Report. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(2):68-72.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
Suchetan Pradhan, Effath Yasmin, Amrita Munjal Shah

Ankyloglossia: The Diagnostic Dilemma

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:36] [Pages No:19-23][No of Hits : 4259]


ABSTRACT

Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie refers to a minor anomaly in the attachment of the membrane or frenum that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth, which may interfere with normal function and mobility of the tongue. This article focuses on how to identify and diagnose infant ankyloglossia. Also in this article, we have discussed an instrument fabricated by the team for clear retraction and visualization of posterior ankyloglossia.

Keywords : Posterior ankyloglossia, Diagnosis, Frenum, Tonguetie, Frenectomy, Lasers, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Retraction device.

How to cite this article: Pradhan S, Yasmin E, Shah AM. Ankyloglossia: The Diagnostic Dilemma. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(1):19-23.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
KV Krishnan, N Kurunji Kumaran, Vidyaa Hari Iyer, K Rajasigamani

Laser Etched vs Conventional Etched Enamel: Effect on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:36] [Pages No:1-6][No of Hits : 4192]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the shear bond strength of the teeth prepared for bonding with different power outputs of Erbium, Chromium doped: Yttrium-Scandium- Gallium-Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser etching and to compare different power outputs of laser etching with 37% phosphoric acid.

Materials and methods: A total of 105 premolars, extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly divided into five groups. Different methods were used in each group to prepare the tooth enamel for bonding. The methods are as follows: Etching for 15 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid; irradiation with 1.5 W/10 Hz Er,Cr:YSGG laser, 1.5 W/20 Hz, 2 W/10 Hz and 2 W/20 Hz Er,Cr:YSGG laser. After surface preparation standard edgewise stainless steel premolar brackets were bonded and was examined under scanning electron microscope. The brackets were debonded 24 hours later and shear bond strengths were measured.

Results: Enamel etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds provides a higher shearbond strength for orthodontic bonding but laser etching with 2 W/20 Hz produced a comparable level of shearbond strength to phosphoric acid etched group. While 1.5 W/20 Hz and 2 W/10 Hz produced clinically acceptable shear bond strength for orthodontic bonding and 1.5 W/10 Hz produced the least shearbond strength and not acceptable for orthodontic bonding. Statistical significance was found between the groups (p < 0.01). Group 1 is the highest followed by group 5.

Conclusion: Irradiation with 1.5 W/20 Hz and 2 W/10 Hz were irregular and superficial, in contrast to phosphoric acid. But etching with laser 2 W/20 Hz produced adequate bond strength and could be a viable alternative to other methods.

Keywords: Enamel etching, Laser etching, Shear bond strength, Phosphoric acid etching, Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

How to cite this article:Krishnan KV, Kumaran NK, Iyer VH, Rajasigamani K. Laser Etched vs Conventional Etched Enamel: Effect on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(1):1-6.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
R Jonathan, Joan Mathew, Premila Suganthan, Anoop Samuel, Bejoy John

Comparative Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Four Different Disinfection Techniques in Minimally Instrumented Experimentally Infected Root Canals: An in vitro Study

[Year:2013] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:49-54][No of Hits : 3785]


ABSTRACT

Aim: This study was set out to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of four disinfection techniques namely needle irrigation, diode laser, Photon-induced Photoacoustic Streaming (PIPS) with Er,Cr:YSGG and EndoActivator in minimally instrumented, experimentally infected root canals.

Materials and methods: Eighty single-rooted teeth were selected, prepared to an apical size # 20, taper 0.7; the specimens were sterilized and were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 2 weeks. Disinfection was performed with needle irrigation, 940 nm diode laser, PIPS with 2,740 nm Er,Cr:YSGG laser. After disinfection, aerobic sampling was performed and bacterial counts (colony-forming units) and the incidence of positive samples after 24 hours and 7 days were determined.

Results: After the two time periods, all four disinfection protocols reduced the bacterial load when compared to the pretreatment load. None of the techniques predictably generated negative samples, but diode laser and PIPS with Er,Cr:YSGG was superior, when compared to needle irrigation and EndoActivator in this aspect. No statistically significant difference was found between needle irrigation and EndoActivator.

Conclusion: Diode laser disinfection demonstrated significant elimination of E. faecalis in minimally instrumented canals. PIPS with Er,Cr:YSGG and EndoActivator reduced the bacterial load when compared with needle irrigation.

Keywords:Photon-induced Photoacoustic Streaming, Er,Cr:YSGG, Diode laser, E. faecalis.

How to cite this article: Jonathan R, Mathew J, Suganthan P, Samuel A, John B. Comparative Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Four Different Disinfection Techniques in Minimally Instrumented Experimentally Infected Root Canals: An in vitro Study. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(2):49-54.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Case Report
Natalino Lourenco Neto, Ana Paula Fernandes, Nadia Carolina Teixeira Marques, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira Machado, Ruy Cesar Camargo Abdo, Thais Marchini Oliveira

Pulpotomies with Low-Level Laser Therapy in Human Primary Teeth: A Report of Two Cases

[Year:2013] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:32] [Pages No:105-108][No of Hits : 3713]


ABSTRACT

Several studies investigating the Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) have shown their potential to increase healing, stimulate dentinogenesis and preserve vitality of the dental pulp. The aim of this case report is to show two clinical cases of pulpotomy with LLLT in the mandibular primary molars followed by calcium hydroxide at 6, 12 and 18 months clinical and radiographic follow-up. The clinical and radiographic examination of the pulpotomized teeth and their periradicular area revealed that the treatments were successful in maintaining the teeth asymptomatic and preserving pulpal vitality. LLLT may be considered as an effective alternative for primary teeth. Although our results are encouraging, further studies and longer followup assessments are needed in order to determine the clinical indication of LLLT.

Keywords: Primary teeth, Pulpotomy, Low level laser therapy.

How to cite this article: Neto NL, Fernandes AP, Marques NCT, Machado MAAM, Abdo RCC, Oliveira TM. Pulpotomies with Low-Level Laser Therapy in Human Primary Teeth: A Report of Two Cases. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(3):105-108.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
Meghna Dang, Omkar Shetty

Nine Shade Change by Laser-Assisted Teeth Whitening

[Year:2013] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:73-76][No of Hits : 3339]


ABSTRACT

Different external whitening procedures utilizing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide formulations can be used for tooth bleaching and tooth whitening. Light can be used to enhance or accelerate the bleaching process. Laser bleaching gels incorporate laser absorption-enhancing particles which are used to accelerate the whitening process. This case report describes the procedure for the use of Biolase LaserWhite20 whitening gel and Ezlase 940 nm laser in a patient requesting teeth whitening.

Keywords: Teeth whitening, Teeth bleaching, Laser whitening, Laser bleaching, Laser smile, Dental lasers.

How to cite this article: Dang M, Shetty O. Nine Shade Change by Laser-Assisted Teeth Whitening. Int J Laser Dent 2013; 3(2):73-76.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nikhil Khandge, Suchetan Pradhan, Yogesh Doshi, Atul Kulkarni

Comparison of the Effects of Different Laser Wavelengths on Implants Surfaces

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:36] [Pages No:14-18][No of Hits : 3292]


ABSTRACT

Lasers have been long introduced in dentistry. Today lasers are been used for Endodontics, Periodontics, Oral Surgery as well as restorative procedures. Here, we describe the effect of different wavelengths on the implant surface.

Keywords : Dental laser, Laser uses in dentistry, Oral applications of laser, Implants.

How to cite this article: Khandge N, Pradhan S, Doshi Y, Kulkarni A. Comparison of the Effects of Different Laser Wavelengths on Implants Surfaces. Int J Laser Dent 2013; 3(1):14-18.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Research Article
AR Prabhakar, Chandrashekar Yavagal, Sonali Agarwal, N Basappa

Antimicrobial Effects of Laser-assisted Photodynamic Therapy in Pediatric Endodontic Treatment: A New Clinical Horizon

[Year:2013] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:32] [Pages No:77-81][No of Hits : 2658]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare disinfection of deciduous root canal by conventional chemomechanical debridement (CMD) with sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) vs laserassisted photodynamic therapy (PDT).

Materials and methods: Twelve children aged 4 to 7 years with informed consent from their parents were studied. Access cavities were prepared and culture samples were taken before the commencement of the therapy, after CMD using 0.5% sodium hypochlorite and after laser-assisted PDT using methylene blue (MB) dye. Samples were taken by placing a sterile paper cone into the canals and transferring them into brain heart infusion broth. The samples were then subjected for microbiological processing so as to count the total number of viable bacteria.

Results: Laser-treated canals showed a reduction in bacterial load by 99.99% as against 83.9% obtained after the use of conventional CMD with sodium hypochlorite.

Conclusion: Laser-assisted PDT can be used as an excellent adjunct to CMD to obtain near perfect disinfection of deciduous root canals.

Keywords: Laser-assisted photodynamic therapy, Conventional chemomechanical debridement, Pediatric endodontics.

How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Yavagal C, Agarwal S, Basappa N. Antimicrobial Effects of Laser-assisted Photodynamic Therapy in Pediatric Endodontic Treatment: A New Clinical Horizon. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(3):77-81.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Sultan Zeb Khan, Eitoyo Kokubu, Morito Tsuruoka, Satoshi Murakami, Kenichi Matsuzaka, Takashi Inoue

Morphological Effect of Diode Laser Irradiation of Periapical Lesion in Rat

[Year:2013] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:37-43][No of Hits : 2473]


ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological effects of diode laser irradiation in the experimentally produced periapical lesion in rat. Fourteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 200 gm each were used. Pulp was extirpated from the mesial root of the maxillary first molar using 06 to 25 mm conventional reamers and files. After extirpation, the root canal was exposed to oral flora for 4 weeks to allow periapical periodontitis to develop. After the development of periapical periodontitis, the lesions were irradiated using a diode laser at 5 W for 5 seconds. The root canal was then sealed with cavity filling material for another 4-week period. After 4 weeks, the experimental rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The maxillary first molar was then collected along with the surrounding tissue, which was processed in the laboratory. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining were used to observe the morphological effects. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), STRO-1 and CD44 were used as the primary antibodies for the immunohistochemical study.
A reduction in inflammatory cells, which were mainly composed of lymphocytes, was observed in the periapical lesions after irradiation. The number of PCNA-positive cells increased to approximately twice that observed in the nonirradiated control group. These PCNA-positive cells included STRO-1 and CD44-positive cells, indicating enhancement of wound healing and reduction in inflammatory cells.
The present results showed that diode laser irradiation enhanced proliferation of PCNA-positive cells, which included STRO-1 and CD44-positive cells. This increase in these types of cell may improve wound healing in periapical lesions.

Keywords:Periapical periodontitis, Diode laser, PCNA, Laser irradiation, STRO-1.

How to cite this article: Khan SZ, Kokubu E, Tsuruoka M, Murakami S, Matsuzaka K, Inoue T. Morphological Effect of Diode Laser Irradiation of Periapical Lesion in Rat. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(2):37-43.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
Kirti Chawla, Arundeep Kaur Lamba, Farrukh Faraz, Shruti Tandon

Treatment of Pyogenic Granuloma using Er,Cr:YSGG Laser

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:36] [Pages No:29-32][No of Hits : 2433]


ABSTRACT

Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a common, usually solitary, benign sessile or pedunculated vascular proliferation of the skin and mucous membranes, presenting as hemorrhagic growth, especially in children and women of reproductive age. The lesion is unrelated to infection and arises in response to various stimuli, such as low grade local irritation, traumatic injury or hormonal factors. This report presents a case of a 47 years old male with a PG in relation to lower anteriors. This lesion was removed using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The healing was uneventful and no suture or analgesic was required.

Keywords : Pyogenic granuloma, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Erbium lasers, Inflammatory hyperplasia.

How to cite this article: Chawla K, Lamba AK, Faraz F, Tandon S, Treatment of Pyogenic Granuloma using Er,Cr:YSGG Laser. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(1):29-32.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
Vidyaa Hari Iyer

Laser-assisted Pink Esthetic Management for an Orthodontic Patient

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:36] [Pages No:33-36][No of Hits : 2240]


ABSTRACT

Dental esthetics is an important branch of dentistry which deals with the harmony of the teeth and the gingiva in relation to the face. In modern society, it defines a person’s character, social acceptance, overall progress in his chosen profession and which reinforces on the social well being of a person. This emphasis has further reiterated the feeling of looking good and being selfconfident. Lasers in dentistry have paved a way for the general practitioners to easily manage the soft tissue contour and enhance the pink esthetics in relation to the teeth and the facial profile. This case report deals with the management of the gingiva in terms of the color, texture and contour, thereby enhancing the smile of a dentally compromised patient.

Keywords : Depigmentation, Gingivectomy, Gingivoplasty, Laser treatment, Soft tissue crown lengthening, Frenotomy, Frenectomy, Orthodontic correction, Minimal bleeding and pain.

How to cite this article: Iyer VH. Laser-assisted Pink Esthetic Management for an Orthodontic Patient. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(1):33-36.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
Vidyaa Hari Iyer, Srinivasan Ramakrishnan Manali

Interdisciplinary Approach using Diode Laser for Esthetic Management of Missing Anterior Teeth

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:36] [Pages No:24-28][No of Hits : 2214]


ABSTRACT

A 30-year-old female patient was reported with pain and swelling in the region of 21. On clinical examination, a swelling was found close to the cervical margin of 21. The suggested treatment plan was periapical surgery of 21. On elevation of flap there was a vertical fracture in cervical region of 21, showing poor prognosis. Extraction of 21 was done and an interdisciplinary approach was carried out with laser-assisted root canal treatment of 12. Also laser troughing in 12 and 22 regions to serve as abutments and an ovate pontic preparation in 11 and 21 regions was carried out. Lasers can be used as an adjunct and/or alternative in the management of multiple dental procedures in the esthetic zone ensuring promising dental outcome.

Keywords : Laser, Endodontic failure, Ovate pontic preparation, Troughing, Laser-assisted root canal disinfection, Low level laser therapy.

How to cite this article: Iyer VH, Manali SR. Interdisciplinary Approach using Diode Laser for Esthetic Management of Missing Anterior Teeth. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(1):24-28.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Narender Reddy, Sainath Reddy, Manoranjan Reddy, Srikanth Pasari, A Swathi, Shilpa Reddy Admala

Comparative Evaluation of Root Canal Dentin on Efficacy of Smear Layer Removal with Nd:YAG Laser and EDTA after Rotary Instrumentation – SEM Study

[Year:2013] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:44-48][No of Hits : 2064]


ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) and Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser in removing smear layer on root canal dentin after rotary instrumentation.

Materials and methods: Sixty extracted maxillary incisor teeth were taken, decoronated and standardized to working length of 14 mm from the apex. All the canals were prepared with NiTi rotary files, rinsed with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and divided into three groups. Group 1 constituted the negative control and was rinsed with saline, group 2 with EDTA and group 3 was exposed to Nd:YAG radiation. The specimens were split longitudinally into two halves and examined under SEM with 1,000× magnification at levels of 2 and 6 mm from apical foramen. Photomicrographs were evaluated by the Hulsmann scoring system and results were tabulated. Scores 1 and 2 were grouped as clean walls and scores 3, 4 and 5 were grouped as smear layer present.

Results: Group 1 showed inefficiency in removing smear layer with only 15% clean walls in middle one-third and no clean walls in apical one-third. Group 2 (NaOCl + EDTA) showed 55% clean walls in middle one-third while 15% clean walls in apical onethird while group 3 showed 70% effectiveness in middle onethird and only 15% effectiveness in apical one-third.

Conclusion: EDTA and Nd:YAG were found more efficient in smear layer removal than saline. Results of EDTA and Nd:YAG were comparable in apical one-third while Nd:YAG was found to be more efficient than EDTA in middle one-third.

Keywords: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Neodymium- Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Sodium hypochlorite.

How to cite this article: Reddy N, Reddy S, Reddy M, Pasari S, Swathi A, Admala SR. Comparative Evaluation of Root Canal Dentin on Efficacy of Smear Layer Removal with Nd:YAG Laser and EDTA after Rotary Instrumentation – SEM Study. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(2):44-48.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Case Report
Shipra Arora, Arundeep Kaur Lamba, Farrukh Faraz, Shruti Tandon, Kirti Chawla

Treatment of Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma using Er,Cr:YSGG Laser: Report of Two Cases

[Year:2013] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:32] [Pages No:94-99][No of Hits : 1990]


ABSTRACT

Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a non-neoplastic growth on the gingiva thought to arise from the periodontal ligament. Histopathologic analysis always reveals immature bone and osteoid within the lesion. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. This report comprises of two cases of POFs which were removed using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Two patients of age 36 and 25 years reported with the growths which were causing constant irritation as well as esthetic problem. Lesions were removed using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The healing was uneventful and no suture or analgesic was required. The histopathological report confirmed them as POF. No relapse was observed till 1 year after surgery. Therefore with this laser, there is relatively bloodless and painless surgery and in postsurgical course there is minimal swelling and scarring so patient’s compliance is much better with this laser as compared to other techniques and lasers.

Keywords: Peripheral ossifying fibroma, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Benign tumors, Photomodulation.

How to cite this article: Arora S, Lamba AK, Faraz F, Tandon S, Chawla K. Treatment of Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma using Er,Cr:YSGG Laser: Report of Two Cases. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(3):94-99.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
M Sabari Murugesan, M Rajasekaran, R Indra, Premila Suganthan

Efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser with Conical Tip Design in Smear Layer Removal at the Apical Third of Curved Root Canals

[Year:2013] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:55-59][No of Hits : 1765]


ABSTRACT

This ex vivo study investigates the effectiveness of the new design of the tip of Er,Cr:YSGG laser (BIOLASETM) in removing the smear layer at the apical third of curved root canals. Eighty one freshly extracted intact single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth with 15° to 30° canal curvature were selected and decoronated at the level of the cementoenamel junction. The roots were divided into three main groups with 27 samples each. Group I—non-lased teeth, group II—teeth lased with plain tip and group III—teeth lased with conical tip. Each group was further divided into three subgroups of nine samples each with 2 ml of 17% (Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 2 ml of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), 2 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) respectively. In all the three groups, canals were prepared with rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments to a working length 1 mm short of the apex to size F3, using ProTaper instruments. The fiber tips were placed into the appropriate irrigant solution in the root canal to a depth of 1 mm short of working length and then activated for 20 seconds. The teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 1000×. It can be concluded that to ensure complete removal of smear layer from the root canal system it may be prudent to activate EDTA with conical tip design of Er,Cr:YSGG laser during irrigation protocol in the curved root canals.

Keywords: Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Conical tip design, Curved root canals, Smear layer, Scanning electron microscope.

How to cite this article: Murugesan MS, Rajasekaran M, Indra R, Suganthan P. Efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser with Conical Tip Design in Smear Layer Removal at the Apical Third of Curved Root Canals. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(2):55-59.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Case Report
Vidayaa Hari Iyer, Roja Sasikumar

Management of Oral Pyogenic Granuloma with 940 nm Diode Laser: A Rare Case Report

[Year:2013] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:32] [Pages No:100-104][No of Hits : 1684]


ABSTRACT

Pyogenic granuloma was first described in 1897 by two French surgeons, Poncet and Dor, who named this lesion botryomycosis hominis. Pyogenic granulomas and hemangiomas of the oral cavity are well-known benign lesions. Although, pyogenic granuloma is known to show a striking predilection for the gingiva and capillary hemangioma for lips, cheek and tongue, palatal occurrence of these lesions is extremely rare. The clinical diagnosis of such an uncommon occurrence can be quite challenging, as they sometimes may mimic more serious lesions such as malignancies. The purpose of this article is to report an unusual case of benign tumor occurring on hard palate, which was clinically diagnosed as pyogenic granuloma and histopathologically as capillary hemangioma. The treatment options available are conventional surgical excision; electrocautery and lasers-erbium or diode. This article highlights the use of 940 nm diode laser in surgical excision of oral pyogenic granuloma enumerating its advantages over the conventional available treatment options.

Keywords: Laser excision, Minimal bleeding, Oral pyogenic granuloma, Capillary hemangioma.

How to cite this article: Iyer VH, Sasikumar R. Management of Oral Pyogenic Granuloma with 940 nm Diode Laser: A Rare Case Report. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(3):100-104.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Review Article
MS Saravanakumar, Premila Suganthan, Arun Jacob Silas

Guiding Unerupted Teeth using Lasers: Review and Case Series

[Year:2013] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:32] [Pages No:89-93][No of Hits : 1477]


ABSTRACT

When the teeth do not erupt at the expected time, it is crucial for the clinician to determine the etiology and formulate an appropriate treatment plan. This case series describes the use of diode lasers in guiding the eruption of unerupted central incisor into occlusion during the mixed dentition stage. Traditional methods of removing fibrotic gingiva overlying unerupted teeth using scalpels or electrosurgery may produce postoperative discomfort and prolonged healing. Lasers provide a simple and safe alternative for children while at the same time reducing the chances of infection, swelling, discomfort, and scaring, besides fear and anxiety, common symptoms related to this specific group in surgical procedures.

Keywords: Dental laser, Unerupted teeth, Impacted teeth, Diode laser, Fibrotic gingiva.

How to cite this article: Saravanakumar MS, Suganthan P, Silas AJ. Guiding Unerupted Teeth using Lasers: Review and Case Series. Int J Laser Dent 2013;3(3):89-93.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Dentistry: The Everchanging World

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:36] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 787]


ABSTRACT

Dentistry: The Everchanging World

Nothing in the world is constant. The only constant is the change itself. This holds true for dentistry as well. As the internet generation starts asserting itself and takes control of the world, seeking knowledge has become very easy. All one has to do is Google something and it will unfold before you. It is now the application of that knowledge which is the key. So, we will develop many new technologies and we will have many new buzzwords, some successful over a long-term while some have a short-shelf life.


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2013] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 575]


ABSTRACT

The world is seeing a spate of upheavals; political, economic and social. The economic downturn in India and the concomitant depreciation of the rupee has eroded the financial environment. It is our social and moral responsibility to understand the dental milieu to address the issues that concern us as dentists. An in-depth analysis of the dental needs and aspirations of the Indian population is, therefore, imperative. Keeping this in mind, we, at IJOLD, have proposed a separate section of survey articles from this issue onward. This will encourage a broader understanding of the present status of our dental condition and requirements. As an introduction, we have published a survey article on the dental health and nutritional health of children in the Municipal Corporation Schools in Mumbai.


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2013] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:32] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 560]


ABSTRACT

Dear Friends,

Happy New Year to all. The Indian Academy of Laser Dentistry (IALD) has had a very successful year both in terms of conference participation and training programs as well as in spreading the science of laser dentistry through the world.


 
CASE REPORTS
Suchetan Pradhan, Effath Yasmin, Amrita Mehta

Management of Posterior Ankyloglossia using the Er,Cr:YSGG Laser

[Year:2012] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:34] [Pages No:41-46][No of Hits : 12658]


ABSTRACT

Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie, refers to a minor anomaly in the attachment of the membrane or frenum that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth, which may interfere with normal function and mobility of the tongue. Ankyloglossia is a poorly recognized and inadequately defined condition and has been reported to cause breastfeeding difficulties, dental issues and speech problems. This article discusses assessment criterions to diagnose posterior ankylogossia and lays down treatment protocol in neonates using the Er,Cr:YSGG (Waterlase MD).

Keywords:Posterior ankyloglossia, Frenum, Tongue-tie, Frenectomy, Lasers, Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

How to Cite this article: Pradhan S, Yasmin E, Mehta A. Management of Posterior Ankyloglossia using the Er,Cr:YSGG Laser. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(2):41-46.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORTS
Udatta Kher, Zeenat Khan

Gingival Depigmentation using the Diode Laser: Three Case Reports

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:28] [Pages No:78-83][No of Hits : 7950]


ABSTRACT

Melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is a common occurrence. Depending on the gingival display during smiling, corrective measures may be needed for an esthetic purpose. Diode laser is a minimally invasive treatment option for the treatment of gingival melanin pigmentation. Three case reports of gingival depigmentation procedure performed using a 980 nm diode laser are presented here.

Keywords : Depigmentation, Diode laser, De-epithelialization, 980 nm.

How to cite this article: Kher U, Khan Z. Gingival Depigmentation using the Diode Laser: Three Case Reports. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(3):78-83.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
Vidyaa Hari Iyer, Vijayalakshmi Moorthy, Padmapriya Ramalingam

Use of Lasers in the Management of Mucocele: Two Case Reports

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:28] [Pages No:92-96][No of Hits : 7479]


ABSTRACT

A mucous cyst (mucocele, mucous retention cyst, ranula, epulis) is a painless, thin sac on the inner surface of the lips. It contains clear fluid. They are painless but can be bothersome. The cysts are thought to be caused because of sucking of the lip membranes between the teeth. Mucous cysts are common and harmless. However, if left untreated, they can organize and form a permanent bump on the inner surface of the lip. They are called ranula when on the floor of the mouth, and epulis when on the gums. The sac may be formed around the jewellery (piercings) that have been inserted into the lips or tongue. This article highlights the use of lasers in the treatment of excision of mucocele.

Keywords : Mucocele, Diode laser, Erbium laser, Excision, Minimal bleeding.

How to cite this article: Iyer VH, Moorthy V, Ramalingam P. Use of Lasers in the Management of Mucocele: Two Case Reports. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(3):92-96.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
Yogesh Doshi, Nikhil Khandge, Girish Byakod, Priya Patil

Management of Gingival Pigmentation with Diode Laser: Is It a Predictive Tool?

[Year:2012] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:34] [Pages No:29-32][No of Hits : 7464]


ABSTRACT

Today, an attractive smile is the vogue for many individuals. Gingival health and appearance are essential components for an attractive smile and removal of unsightly pigmented gingival is the need for a pleasant and confident smile. In some populations, gingival pigmentation seems to be a genetic trait and is irrespective of age and gender, hence gingival pigmentation is termed as physiologic or racial gingival pigmentation. Intraoral pigmentation is seen due to the presence of the fundamental pigment melanin that colors the tissues. Several treatment modalities have been suggested for gingival depigmentation. Many varying results have been observed, but the repigmentation has been documented to occur. The large variation in time of repigmentation may be related to the techniques used and the race of the patient. This case report demonstrates the probable cause of repigmentation where pigmentation has recurred limbs.

Keywords:Melanin, Laser, Keratinocytes, Melanocytes.

How to Cite: Doshi Y, Khandge N, Byakod G, Patil P. Management of Gingival Pigmentation with Diode Laser: Is It a Predictive Tool?. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(1):29-32.


 
CASE SERIES
Rohit Karnik, Suchetan Pradhan

Peri-implant Disease-A Clinical Overview (Part 1): Diagnosis, Etiopathology and Risk-Related Aspects

[Year:2012] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:34] [Pages No:18-25][No of Hits : 7089]


ABSTRACT

Peri-implant diseases are infectious diseases and a common cause of complications that may be associated with dental implant failures. With increase in numbers of implants, both newly placed and serving under function, it is necessary to achieve an understanding of the current evidence on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects of peri-implant diseases. As therapeutic modalities are still evolving and consensus regarding their predictability yet to be achieved, a thorough risk assessment and early diagnosis assume added importance. This two parts review attempts to present the current state of evidence regarding the stated aspects of peri-implant diseases including peri-implant mucositis, peri-implantitis and their treatment modalities. The first part of the series presented in this paper addresses key issues regarding the case- definition, diagnostic, etiopatholgy and risk-related aspects while the second part will address the different treatment modalities with special emphasis on the use of laser radiation for peri-implant diseases.

Keywords:Peri-implant disease, Peri-implantitis, Peri-implant mucositis, Risk factors, Diagnosis.

How to Cite: Karnik R, Pradhan S. Peri-implant Disease—A Clinical Overview (Part 1): Diagnosis, Etiopathology and Risk-Related Aspects. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(1):18-25.


 
CASE REPORTS
S Anoop, Seba Abraham, R Ambili, Nuthen Mathew

Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Depigmentation using Scalpel and Diode Laser with 1 year Follow-up

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:28] [Pages No:87-91][No of Hits : 6239]


ABSTRACT

Gingival hyperpigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Though it is not a medical problem, many people complain of dark gums as unesthetic. Gingival depigmentation is a periodontal plastic surgical procedure, whereby the hyperpigmentation is removed or reduced by various techniques. For depigmentation of gingiva, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as scalpel, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, lasers, etc. This article compares management of two cases with scalpel and laser and also highlights the relevance of lasers.

Keywords : Laser application, Laser dentistry treatments, Dental laser.

How to cite this article: Anoop S, Abraham S, Ambili R, Mathew N. Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Depigmentation using Scalpel and Diode Laser with 1 year Follow-up. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(3):87-91.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Simarpreet Singh, Daljit Kapoor, Ramandeep Singh Gambhir, Amarinder Kaur, Gurminder Singh

Safety Concerns Regarding the use of Dental Lasers

[Year:2012] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:34] [Pages No:35-40][No of Hits : 5113]


ABSTRACT

The laser technology offers a wide range of uses in dentistry with certain advantages to the general dental practitioner like bloodless surgery, minimal postoperative pain, reduction of operative time and high patient acceptance. Patient acceptance has also been demonstrated in various studies. Despite these major advantages, safety regarding the use of lasers cannot be neglected. It has become an important concern in this modern era of dentistry because of the growing application of the technology. Potential hazards can be encountered while using lasers like the ocular hazards, tissue injury, inhaling the vapors emitted by the laser procedure, fire, explosion hazards, etc. The safe use of lasers should be ensured by the individuals who might be exposed either deliberately or accidently while using lasers. Effective measures should also be undertaken by clinicians and health professionals to minimize the injuries caused due to laser accidents. This article explores the risks involved in the use of lasers in dentistry and suggests some of the laser safety protocols/measures that can be established in the dental office for prevention of laser injuries.

Keywords:Laser, Safety, Hazards, Dentistry, Measures.

How to Cite this article: Singh S, Kapoor D, Gambhir RS, Kaur A, Singh G. Safety Concerns Regarding the use of Dental Lasers. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(2):35-40.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
SK Ajilal, R Jonathan Emil Sam, Renjith Babu, Premila Suganthan

Morphological Changes in the Caries Excavated Dentin Prepared by Rotary, Carisolv and Er, Cr: YSGG Laser (Biolase) Instruments: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

[Year:2012] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:34] [Pages No:1-6][No of Hits : 3920]


ABSTRACT

The in vitro study presented in this article was performed to evaluate the morphological changes in caries excavated dentin after using three different caries removal methods. These methods include mechanical, chemomechanical (Carisolv™) and Er, Cr: YSGG Laser (Biolase™) by means of scanning electron microscope. Extracted carious human molars were ground to flat surfaces to expose caries surrounded by sound dentin. The caries were then removed with tungsten carbide bur and airotor handpiece (G1), by chemomechanical (Carisolv™) method (G2), and by irradiation with an Er, Cr: YSGG Laser (Biolase™) unit (G3). The samples were then observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with different magnification powers (×800, ×2000 and ×5000). SEM study revealed a considerable difference in the surface characteristics of the dental tissue. The surface which was treated with Er, Cr: YSGG laser (Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium – Scandium – Gallium – Garnet) showed the best result with no residual smear layer followed by surfaces which were chemomechanically excavated with Carisolv™ gel. The treatment with mechanical method resulted in a surface with a smear layer without any micro retention. Thus, from the results obtained, it was concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser produced a scaly, irregular and rugged tooth surface without smear layer, which can be of highly retentive nature. Carisolv™ treated dentin showed uneven surfaces with many undermined areas. There were partially patented dentinal tubules and residues of contaminant smear layer. The dentin surfaces prepared using tungsten carbide bur and spoon excavator produced smearing and smear plugs in the tubular orifices.

Keywords:Er, Cr: YSGG Laser, Carisolv, Scanning electron microscope, Caries-affected dentin.

How to Cite: Ajilal SK, Sam RJE, Babu R, Suganthan P. Morphological Changes in the Caries Excavated Dentin Prepared by Rotary, Carisolv™ and Er, Cr: YSGG Laser (Biolase™) Instruments: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(1):1-6.


 
CASE REPORTS
Vidyaa Hari Iyer, Padmapriya Ramalingam, Elakya Nagadevan

Neurofibroma of Tongue: Solitary Lesion

[Year:2012] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:34] [Pages No:56-58][No of Hits : 3614]


ABSTRACT

Neurofibroma is an uncommon benign tumor of the oral cavity derived from the cells that constitute the nerve sheath. The cases of oral cavity involvement by a solitary and peripheral plexiform neurofibroma in patients with no other signs of neurofibromatosis is uncommon. Sporadic cases have been reported in the submandibular gland, tongue and on the periosteum at the mental foramen. The World Health Organization (WHO) has subdivided neurofibromas into two broad categories: dermal and plexiform. The dermal neurofibromas arise from a single peripheral nerve, while the plexiform neurofibromas are associated with multiple nerve bundles. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of diode laser in the treatment of neurofibroma of a solitary lesion on the tongue. The advantages of using lasers in this case report was a bloodless and painless experience for the patient with excellent healing of the operated site after a period of 1 week.

Keywords:Neurofibroma tongue, Diode laser excision, Neurofibroma treatment.

How to Cite this article: Iyer VH, Ramalingam P, Nagadevan E. Neurofibroma of Tongue: Solitary Lesion. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(2):56-58.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORTS
Pallavi Meshram, Ramreddy Yeltiwar

The Light Touch-Application of Soft Tissue Diode LASER in Periodontics: A Report of Three Cases

[Year:2012] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:34] [Pages No:47-50][No of Hits : 3167]


ABSTRACT

The word ‘LASER’ is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Different types of lasers used in dentistry are Argon, CO2, Nd:YAG (Neodium:Yttrium- Aluminum-Garnet), Diode and Er:YAG (Erbium: Yttrium- Aluminum-Garnet). Various uses of soft tissue diode lasers in periodontics are depigmentation, soft tissue crown lengthening procedure, soft tissue recontouring, hemostasis, soft tissue ablation, removal of large masses of tissue, bactericidal effects in the pockets, curettage, frenectomy and operculectomy.
The present article reports three cases of the application of soft tissue diode LASER (Fotona XD-2) ® in Periodontics - one being gingival depigmentation and the other two of maxillary labial frenectomy. The patient of gingival depigmentation showed mild patchy repigmentation after 1 year follow-up whereas the patients of frenectomy had stable frenal attachment 6 months postoperatively

Keywords:Laser, Depigmentation, Frenectomy.

How to Cite this article: Meshram P, Yeltiwar R. The Light Touch—Application of Soft Tissue Diode LASER in Periodontics: A Report of Three Cases. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(2):47-50.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORTS
Jatinder Kaur Dhillon, Gauri Kalra, Vijay Prakash Mathur

Laser Biostimulation of Oral Ulcers in Children

[Year:2012] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:34] [Pages No:59-62][No of Hits : 3156]


ABSTRACT

Oral ulcers in children are a frequent complaint of patients reporting to a dental professional. These can be very painful and may cause difficulty during eating, speaking and brushing. Several modalities have been proposed for management of oral ulcers, such as topical anesthetics, antiseptic mouthwashes, etc. However, these have not been proven very efficacious. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as a means of accelerating healing of oral ulcers. This case report presents a case of two painful aphthous ulcers in a 13-year-old child treated with LLLT using soft tissue diode laser. Immediately after the laser therapy, the pain reduced significantly and the healing occured substantially in 72 hours.

Keywords:Children, Diode, Laser, LLLT, Oral, Ulcer.

How to Cite this article: Dhillon JK, Kalra G, Mathur VP. Laser Biostimulation of Oral Ulcers in Children. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(2):59-62.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORTS
Girish Rao, PS Tripthi, Kritika Srinivasan

Hemostatic Effect of the CO2 Laser Over Excision of an Intraoral Hemangioma

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:28] [Pages No:74-77][No of Hits : 3083]


ABSTRACT

Hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the endothelial cells and characterized by increased number of normal or abnormal vessels filled with blood. Most true hemangiomas involute with time, but a certain small percentage does not, which may present with complications that require treatment. An estimated 10 to 20% of the true hemangiomas incompletely involute and require ablative treatment. Hemangiomas are probably one of the most underestimated and misunderstood vascular tumors and it is every diagnostician and clinician’s imperative to have a sound knowledge of these tumors to thus provide successful treatment to the patients.
Conventional surgical excision of hemangioma can cause severe bleeding in the operative site, which on the other hand can be well controlled by the coagulative effect of the CO2 laser, by virtue of a painless vaporization of the tissue. The purpose of this case study is to understand hemangiomas and the importance and efficacy of the minimally invasive, hemostatic effect of a CO2 and little postoperative scarring and morbidity in comparison to the conventional surgical techniques.

Keywords : Intraoral hemangioma, Laser excision, CO2 laser, Hemostasis.

How to cite this article: Rao G, Tripthi PS, Srinivasan K. Hemostatic Effect of the CO2 Laser Over Excision of an Intraoral Hemangioma. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(3):74-77.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Sheetal Parab, Sabita M Ram

An Evaluation of the Surface Condition of Dentin and Its Effect on Microleakage of Metal Copings luted with Glass Ionomer Cement: An in vitro Study

[Year:2012] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:34] [Pages No:7-17][No of Hits : 2936]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the surface conditioned dentin and its effect on microleakage of metal copings luted with glass-ionomer cement.

Objectives: (1) To evaluate the morphology of unconditioned and conditioned dentin, (2) to evaluate the elemental composition of unconditioned and conditioned dentin, (3) to evaluate and compare the microleakage of metal copings luted with glass-ionomer cement to unconditioned and conditioned dentin, (4) to correlate the effect of dentin conditioning on the microleakage of metal copings luted with glass ionomer cement.

Materials and methods:The surface conditioning methods utilized were GC dentin conditioner (group II), air abrasion with 50 µm aluminum oxide (group III) and Er: YAG laser at 120 mj with 10 Hz frequency (group IV). These methods were evaluated and compared with unconditioned dentin (group I) for morphological and elemental analysis using ESEM and correlated for their effect on microleakage of metal copings luted with glass Ionomer cement (Fuji I).

Results:The results of microleakage observed for each group were statistically analyzed by Leven’s test, One-way ANOVA and Schiff’s test. Unconditioned dentin (group I) showed the maximum microleakage. Er:YAG laser (group IV) irradiation with less power density showed significantly minimum microleakage compared to all other groups, followed by air abrasion (group III) and GC dentin conditioner (group II).

Conclusion:Air abrasion and Er: YAG laser conditioning showed less microleakage than surface conditioning with dentin conditioner.

Keywords:Surface conditioning, Glass ionomer cement, Er:YAG laser, Air abrasion dentin conditioner.

How to Cite: Parab S, Ram SM. An Evaluation of the Surface Condition of Dentin and Its Effect on Microleakage of Metal Copings luted with Glass Ionomer Cement: An in vitro Study. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(1):7-17.


 
CASE REPORTS
Vidyaa Hari Iyer, Sonali Sarkar, S Kailasam

Use of the Er,Cr:YSGG Laser in the Treatment of Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma

[Year:2012] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:34] [Pages No:51-55][No of Hits : 2899]


ABSTRACT

Ossifying fibroma mostly occurs in the craniofacial bones and is generally categorized into two types, namely, central and peripheral ossifying fibroma. The peripheral type occurs solely on the soft tissue overlying the alveolar process and is ‘nonneoplastic’. It is a common gingival growth that usually arises from the interdental papilla. The etiology and pathogenesis of peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is unclear. It is thought to arise from the cells in the periodontal ligament. Trauma or local irritation, such as dental plaque, calculus, ill-fitting dental appliances and poor-quality dental restorations are all known to precipitate in the development of POF. Clinically, differential diagnosis includes peripheral giant cell granuloma, pyogenic granuloma, fibroma and peripheral fibroma. Treatment of POF consists of elimination of etiological factors, scaling and root planing of involved teeth and total aggressive surgical excision. Another option available in place of the conventional surgical excision is the excision using lasers. A new addition to this generation of lasers is Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the treatment of POF. The outcome in this case was painless experience to the patient, minimal intraoperative bleeding in the surgical field and excellent healing of the operated area in 1 week period, concluding as one of the best treatment option available for excision of POF.

Keywords:Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Peripheral ossifying fibroma, Healing, Minimal bleeding.

How to Cite this article: Iyer VH, Sarkar S, Kailasam S. Use of the Er,Cr:YSGG Laser in the Treatment of Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(2):51-55.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
D Deepalakshmi, Pratebha Balu

Root Coverage with a Free Gingival Autograft using an Er, Cr: YSGG Laser

[Year:2012] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:34] [Pages No:33-34][No of Hits : 2579]


ABSTRACT

The mucogingival problems are encountered in various periodontal plastic surgical procedures and free gingival autograft is one of the many plastic surgical procedures. Grafting procedures can either be performed traditionally with the help of a scalpel or by using lasers. This paper presents a case of gingival recession with a shallow vestibule that was treated with a free gingival graft using an Er, Cr: YSGG laser with a wavelength of 2780 nm. The objective of this study was to achieve complete root coverage with increased width of attached gingiva in relation to 31 and 41.The recipient bed preparation and harvesting of graft from donor site were done with the Er, Cr: YSGG laser using the appropriate laser parameters so as to ensure proper healing of the free gingival graft. The results of the therapy were assessed after 3 months. The results showed uneventful healing of donor site with complete root coverage and increased width of attached gingival in the recipient site.

How to Cite:Deepalakshmi D, Balu P. Root Coverage with a Free Gingival Autograft using an Er, Cr: YSGG Laser. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(1):33-34.


 
CASE REPORTS
Meghna Dang, Sabita Ram

Integrating Laser Dentistry into Esthetic Dentistry

[Year:2012] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:34] [Pages No:63-68][No of Hits : 2390]


ABSTRACT

Lasers offer simplification of procedures with predictable outcomes. Choice of laser wavelength depends upon the indication for use, ease of use, availability and its spectrum of application. The following article consists of a case report that demonstrates the combined use of various laser wavelengths for the treatment; using a diode laser for frenectomy and an Er,Cr:YSGG laser for osseous crown lengthening.

Keywords:Dental lasers, Crown lengthening, Frenectomy, Depigmentation, Diode, Er,Cr:YSGG.

How to Cite this article: Dang M, Ram S. Integrating Laser Dentistry into Esthetic Dentistry. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(2): 63-68.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
CASE REPORTS
Sukanya Kumar

Laser-Assisted Mental Nerve Neurectomy

[Year:2012] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:34] [Pages No:26-28][No of Hits : 2143]


ABSTRACT

A 66-year-old male was suffering from trigeminal neuralgia affecting the mental branch. The patient was posted for a peripheral neurectomy considering his age and history. The patient had already undergone a neurectomy 3 years before the present complain. Thus, it was decided that a diode laser should be used, so that the nerves can be ablated and the surgery is less painful and bloodless for the patient. Patient was put on observation following the laser neurectomy, so that the recurrence time between a conventional procedure and a laser neurectomy can be compared. The patient reported with recurrence within 4 months. A second surgery showed that the pain was more from collateral innervation than the main nerve regeneration. The cause for the early recurrence of pain is of clinical significance as lasers are known to enhance nerve regeneration.

Keywords:Laser peripheral neurectomy, Trigeminal neuralgia, Recurrent rate, Need for study.

How to Cite: Kumar S. Laser-Assisted Mental Nerve Neurectomy. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(1):26-28.


 
CASE REPORTS
Vandana Sangwan, Zainab Chaudhary, Mahesh Verma, Manish Naithani

Er,Cr:YSGG Laser for Treatment of Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma: A Novel Technique

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:28] [Pages No:84-86][No of Hits : 2052]


ABSTRACT

Background: Peripheral giant cell granuloma is a benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity, originating from the periosteum or periodontal membrane in response to local irritation or chronic trauma. It may develop at any age but is frequently seen in the fifth to sixth decade and shows female predilection.

Materials and methods: Various techniques ranging from conventional scalpel to electric scalpel and cryosurgery have been used for the excision of this lesion. This article describes a case reporting the successful use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser for complete excision of the lesion with minimal discomfort to the patient.

Results: Immediate coagulation was achieved without any use of sutures and excellent wound healing was observed after 1 week.

Conclusion: The benefits offered by the use of this laser excision technique indicates that it should be considered as an efficient tool for similar soft tissue lesions in the oral cavity.

Keywords: Laser, Excision, Healing, Palate, Giant cell granuloma.

How to cite this article: Sangwan V, Chaudhary Z, Verma M, Naithani M. Er,Cr:YSGG Laser for Treatment of Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma: A Novel Technique. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(3): 84-86.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Hasanonder Gumus, Mustafa Zortuk, Halil Ibrahim Kilinc, Ali Riza Tuncdemir

Comparative Analysis of Er:YAG Laser and Other Dentin Cleaning Protocols: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:28] [Pages No:69-73][No of Hits : 1316]


ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the Erbium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Er:YAG) laser to remove remnants of provisional cement. Thirty caries-free human third molars were prepared for cementation with disk-shaped provisional restoration material. Specimens were randomly distributed among six groups, and provisional cement was removed with a dental explorer (G1), pumice (G2), rotary instrument (G3), or Er:YAG laser irradiation at one of three different settings [200 mJ and 15 Hz (G4), 200 mJ and 20 Hz (G5), and 150 mJ and 15 Hz (G6)] until the dentin surface was macroscopically clean. Electron micrographs were obtained and scored, and results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey’s post hoc tests (p < 0.05).
The results suggest that the Er:YAG laser can be used to clean the remnants of provisional cement. Laser application was found to be effective in the removal of provisional cement remnants, whereas the use of an explorer alone was found to be the least effective method tested. To prevent the contamination of luting cements with provisional cement remnants Er:YAG laser can be an alternative method to conventional methods.

Keywords : Er:YAG laser, Dentin cleaning, Provisional cement, Scanning electron microscopy.

How to cite this article: Gumus H, Zortuk M, Kilinc HI, Tuncdemir AR. Comparative Analysis of Er:YAG Laser and Other Dentin Cleaning Protocols: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation. Int J Laser Dent 2012;2(3):69-73.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2012] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:34] [Pages No:v][No of Hits : 826]


ABSTRACT

The world of dentistry has seen tremendous changes in techniques and technologies in the recent past. These are not part of the undergraduate curriculum and the dentists, therefore, have no training or exposure to incorporating these in their practices.
A lot of countries have no guidelines for training and usage of these technologies. We also find that a lot of dentists are reluctant to invest in continuing education even though they invest in new technologies.


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2012] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:34] [Pages No:v][No of Hits : 635]


ABSTRACT

The IJOLD was launched by the President of the Dental Council of India, Dr. Mazumder and the Health Minister of Goa, Mr. Viswajeet Rane at the 5th International Conference of the Indian Academy of Laser Dentistry at the Grand Hyatt, Goa. It was indeed a very proud moment for all of us at IJOLD and truly something to savor.


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:28] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 506]


ABSTRACT

Happy New Year to all. I hope and wish that 2013 will herald a new dawn in the way we practice and promote dentistry. Dentistry has come a long way since the time of the barber—blood letter—dentist and the era of the wandering dentist in fairs and such events. The marketing of dental services was done by minstrels and clowns advertising the wares of particular practitioners. All the dental procedures, mainly extractions, were done in full public view on patients who were under the influence of alcohol.


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Ralf Borchers

Comparison of Diode Lasers in Soft Tissue Surgery using CW and Superpulsed Mode: An in vivo Study

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:17-27][No of Hits : 4673]


ABSTRACT
Dental soft tissue surgery by diode lasers in CW mode often causes carbonization of the tissues with following necrosis and a delay of wound healing. In vitro studies have already shown that superpulsed diode laser surgery has much less disadvantages for the tissues in histological approach. Purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo, if superpulsed mode of operation can realize an improvement for surgeon and patient in soft tissue surgery. A total of 26 patients were treated by diode lasers in different modes of operation for soft tissue surgery. Around 12 patients were treated by superpulsed Elexxion Claros diode laser: 810 nm; 10-50 W Ppeak; 10-20 µs pulse duration; 12000-20000 Hz; 400 µm fiber. 14 patients were treated by Vision MDL-10 diode laser: 980 nm; 2.5 W; CW mode and also 400 µm fiber. Clinical treatment was documented by photos and questionnaires for patients and surgeons. Questions concerned: Carbonization, coagulation, cutting speed, pain, swelling, bleeding, need for drugs, functional reduction and fibrine layer on wounds-during treatment, directly after treatment, after 1 day, after 3 days and after 1 week. The clinical observations and the questionnaires showed in most cases signicant differences between CW mode and superpulsed diode laser treatment in surgery. It could be shown that superpulsed diode laser surgery is superior to continuous wave done treatment. Carbonization and thermal damage of the tissues can be reduced to a minimum, therefore healing is faster as in CW mode surgery. Generation of a soft tissue cut is faster and more precise. Patients have less pain in amount and time period. The need of drugs is reduced. There are less functional restrictions and there is less swelling. The advantages of superpulsed mode of operation for soft tissue diode laser surgery are evident. Continuous wave mode should no longer be implemented in diode laser surgery.
Keywords: Diode laser, Mode of operation, Laser surgery, Carbonization.
How to Cite
Borchers R. Comparison of Diode Lasers in Soft Tissue Surgery using CW and Superpulsed Mode: An in vivo Study. Intl J Laser Dentistry. 2011;1(1):17-27


 
REVIEW ARTICLES
M Alex Mathews

Diode Lasers: A Versatile Clinical Tool (A Technical and Clinical Review)

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:9-15][No of Hits : 4041]


ABSTRACT
Diode lasers are fast becoming part of contemporary clinical practice and have since opened up vistas of unprecedented patient care. However, the nuances of their functioning and mechanisms of tissue interaction have not been widely discussed or clearly elucidated. This paper assimilates the facts in literature and throws light on the basics and essentials of this technological advancement that indeed has become a boon to all walks and branches of science.
Keywords: Diode lasers, Isosbestic point, Hemostasis, LLLT.
How to Cite
Mathews MA. Diode Lasers: A Versatile Clinical Tool (A Technical and Clinical Review). Intl J Laser Dentistry. 2011;1(1):9-15


 
REVIEW ARTICLES
Steven Parker

Laser: Tissue Interaction and Its Application in Clinical Dentistry

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:1-8][No of Hits : 3598]


ABSTRACT
The word “Laser” is a generic for the many examples of instruments that deliver specific electromagnetic (photonic) energy. The clinician may choose one of many laser wavelengths to achieve adjunctive therapy; the success of a given laser treatment will depend upon the predictability of the interaction of photonic energy with target tissue. This paper serves to present theoretical and practical aspects of laser-tissue interaction, drawing upon evidence-based published investigation.
Keywords: Laser, Tissue, Interaction, Dentistry, Absorption.
How to Cite
Parker S. Laser: Tissue Interaction and Its Application in Clinical Dentistry. Intl J Laser Dentistry. 2011;1(1):1-8


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
MS Munisekhar, K Mahendranadh Reddy, Syed Afroz Ahmed, Charu Suri, Esther Priyadarshini S

Conventional Scalpel vs Laser Biopsy: A Comparative Pilot Study

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:41-44][No of Hits : 2592]


ABSTRACT
During a biopsy procedure, it is fundamental to maintain safe and readable cut margins in order to permit histological visualization of a lesion. With the advent of lasers, laser surgery has been shown to exhibit several advantages over scalpel surgery. But, there has been a considerable controversy concerning the reliability of laser biopsies and the effects of thermal damage to the edge of the laser wounds. The aim of this pilot study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of laser biopsy to conventional method with regard to histological peripheral damage. In this study, Waterlase (Er, Cr: YSGG, 2780 nm) and Diode lasers (940 nm) at different power settings and fluences were used. In the biopsy specimens, the cut edges of the incision, when lower settings were applied, were without any adverse effects and there was no difficulty in diagnosis. But whereas in the specimens obtained using higher settings diagnosis was difficult.
Keywords: Diagnosis, Hemostasis, Histology.
How to Cite
Munisekhar MS, Reddy KM, Ahmed SA, Suri C, S Priyadarshini E. Structural and Compositional Changes of Human Root Surfaces on Exposure to Diode Laser (810 nm): An in vitro Study. Intl J Laser Dentistry. 2011;1(1):41-44


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Suchetan Pradhan, Rohit Karnik

Temperature Rise on External Root Surface during Laser Endodontic Therapy using 940 nm Diode Laser: An in vitro Study

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:29-35][No of Hits : 2098]


ABSTRACT
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the rise in temperature on the external root surface during 940 nm diode laser assisted root canal therapy.
Materials and methods: A total of 120 human single rooted extracted teeth were included in the study. The root canals were enlarged and laser irradiation was performed at four different settings (1 W continuous mode, 1 W gated mode 10/10, 2 W continuous mode and 2 W gated mode 10/10). The rise in temperature was measured at apical, middle and cervical thirds. The temperature changes were evaluated by a thermocouple. The threshold temperature rise of 7°C is commonly considered as the highest temperature limit biologically acceptable to avoid periodontal damage.
Results: The mean temperature rise on external root surface in our study was below 7°C in all parameters and all portions of root surface.
Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser at 1 W CM, 1 W gated 10/10, 2 W CM and 2 W gated 10/10 can be considered safe for use for laser assisted root canal therapy.
Keywords: Diode laser, Endodontic treatment, Temperature rise on root surface.
How to Cite
Pradhan S, Karnik R. Temperature Rise on External Root Surface during Laser Endodontic Therapy using 940 nm Diode Laser: An in vitro Study. Intl J Laser Dentistry. 2011;1(1):29-35


 
CASE REPORTS
Monica Gupta, Suchetan Pradhan

Laser Assisted Smile Designing

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:45-47][No of Hits : 1970]


ABSTRACT
Advances in dental ceramics and advent of laser dentistry has simplified esthetic rehabilitation with predictable results. Relatively painless procedures and rapid healing as compared to conventional techniques make it a more patient friendly approach.
Keywords: Dental lasers, Smile designing.
How to Cite
Gupta M, Pradhan S. Laser Assisted Smile Designing. Intl J Laser Dentistry. 2011;1(1):45-47


 
CASE REPORTS
Udatta Kher

Diode Lasers: The Cutting Edge

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:49-53][No of Hits : 1621]


ABSTRACT
Lasers offer many useful clinical applications for general dentists in the diagnosis and treatment of patients, as long as the clinician receives the proper training to use this technology safely and effectively. This article consists of 3 case reports where the Diode laser has been effectively used for treatment of periodontal pockets, crown lengthening and exposure of a canine for orthodontic treatment.
Keywords: Lasers, Periodontics, Crown lengthening, Orthodontics, Pain free.
How to Cite
Kher U. Diode Lasers: The Cutting Edge. Intl J Laser Dentistry. 2011;1(1):49-53


 
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
BS Jagadish Pai, M Alex Mathews, M Srinivas, Amit Walvekar, Smitha, Debjit

ORIGINAL RESEARCHStructural and Compositional Changes of Human Root Surfaces on Exposure to Diode Laser (810 nm): An in vitro Study

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:37-40][No of Hits : 1378]


ABSTRACT
Introduction: The adjunctive use of lasers in the treatment of inflammatory periodontal diseases is gaining popularity in the dental offices. Thermal and photo-disruptive laser effects contribute to the elimination of periodontal pathogens. Clinical studies have demonstrated a highly supportive effect of many laser systems, when used in conjunction with scaling and root planing. Several in vitro studies have, however, indicated that lasers may severely damage root surface structures and inhibit new cellular attachment when certain energy levels are exceeded. The present study focuses on the structural and compositional changes induced on the root surfaces of teeth following diode laser application with increasing quantum of exposure time.
Aims and objectives: To examine the structural and compositional changes on the roots of extracted human permanent teeth after application of diode lasers (810 nm).
To evaluate and compare structural and compositional changes on roots of extracted human permanent teeth after diode laser application for 15, 30, 45 and 60 seconds.
Materials and methods: A total of 20 single rooted extracted teeth were utilized for this study and divided into group 1: laser application for 15 seconds, group 2: laser application for 30 seconds, group 3: leser application for 45 seconds and group 4: laser application for 60 seconds.
Diode laser (810 nm) application was done in the noncontact mode. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the cemental surface and compositional changes of the teeth in each group were further assessed using EDAX software.
Results: As the exposure time of the diode laser (810 nm) on the root surface was increased, there was a concomitant increase in surface irregularities, manifested in the form of cracks and charring. There was also a decrease in the calcium and phosphorus mass percentage, as the time of laser application increased.
Keywords: Extracted teeth, Exposure time, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Cementum, Compositional changes, Ultrastructural changes.
How to Cite
Pai BSJ, Mathews MA, Srinivas M, Walvekar A, Smitha, Debjit. Structural and Compositional Changes of Human Root Surfaces on Exposure to Diode Laser (810 nm): An in vitro Study. Intl J Laser Dentistry. 2011;1(1):37-40


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:v][No of Hits : 652]



 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:37] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 497]


Dear Readers,
Happy New Year!!
May you have a blessed and joyous year!!
Dentistry in our country is poised to take a leap into the next millennium with new therapies and technologies being introduced. We need to have more guidance and regulations from the Dental Council of India (DCI) in the new areas. A case in point is conscious sedation with nitrous oxide. The Dentists all over the world are allowed to use this in their clinics without any anesthetic supervision.


 
Review Article
Preethi Varadan, Lakshmi Balaji, Deivanayagam Kandaswamy

Comparison on Surface Roughness and Its Effect on Bonding between Conventional Bur and Laser Cut Cavities: An in vitro Study

[Year:2015] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:32] [Pages No:6-11][No of Hits : 480]


ABSTRACT

Buccal surfaces of human extracted molars were obtained and divided into three groups for cavity preparation. Class V cavities were prepared using diamond bur for Group 1, tungsten carbide bur for Group 2, and Er,Cr:YSGG laser for Group 3. The surface roughness was measured using a 3D noncontact profilometer. The samples were subdivided into subgroups A and B, where subgroup B underwent additional acid-etching procedure. The temperature rise during cavity preparation was recorded using a digital thermostat. The samples were then restored with composite resin following application of bonding agent and light cured for 20 seconds for bond strength evaluation under Universal Testing Machine at a cross speed of 0.5 mm/minutes. The data obtained were finally statistically analyzed. On surface roughness evaluation, laser group (G3) produced maximum surface roughness when compared to conventional bur groups (G1 and G2). On depth of surface roughness evaluation, additional acid etching increased surface roughness of all three groups with laser group (subG3B) followed by acid etching exhibiting maximum surface roughness. On bond strength evaluation, diamond group (G1) exhibited increased bond strength when compared to laser (G3) and tungsten carbide group (G2). On thermal change estimation, all the three groups (G1, G2, and G3) produced minimal temperature rise which was below 5.5. Despite increased surface roughness produced by laser, conventional diamond bur (G1) produced highest bond strength when compared to laser (G3) and tungsten carbide groups (G2).

Keywords: Dental burs, Digital thermostat, Laser, 3D noncontact profilometer.

How to cite this article: Varadan P, Balaji L, Kandaswamy D. Comparison on Surface Roughness and Its Effect on Bonding between Conventional Bur and Laser Cut Cavities: An in vitro Study. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(1):6-11.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
AR Prabhakar, Chandrashekar Yavagal, Amitha M Shagale

Evaluation of a Novel Pulpotomy Technique with a Low-level Laser Therapy and Its Comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Pulpotec: An Animal Trial

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:3] [Pages:20] [Pages No:58-62][No of Hits : 383]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pedodontists have always looked for newer techniques, safer materials, and ergonomic technologies to treat pulpal infections so as to help children heal faster. Low-level laser is one such innovation that needs to be assessed for its efficacy as a potential pulpotomy medicament.

Aim: To evaluate the histological changes in the dental pulp of dog’s primary premolars after pulpotomy using low-level diode laser therapy (LLLT) in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and Pulpotec.

Design: In this experimental study, 30 teeth were randomly selected from five dogs. The animals were anesthetized and pulpotomized using LLLT, MTA, and Pulpotec respectively. One week later, the pulpotomized teeth were extracted and subjected to histological evaluation for inflammation. Histological changes seen in the pulp tissues of all the groups were subjected to statistical analysis using Kruskal-Wallis test for groupwise analysis (p-value of < 0.001) and for pairwise Mann-Whitney U test (p-value of < 0.05).

Results: On histologic observations, least inflammation was seen in low-level laser group followed by Pulpotec. Severe inflammatory cell infiltrates were seen in MTA.

Conclusion: Low-level laser therapy appears to be a safe, minimally invasive, yet an effective modality for pulpotomy followed by Pulpotec.

Keywords: Low level laser therapy, Mineral trioxide aggregate, Pulpotec, Pulpotomy.

How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Yavagal C, Shagale AM. Evaluation of a Novel Pulpotomy Technique with a Low-level Laser Therapy and Its Comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Pulpotec: An Animal Trial. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(3):58-62.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Abhishek Gautam

Semiconductor Diode Laser provides Desirable Smile: A Clinical and Histological Study with 1-year Follow-up

[Year:2015] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:20] [Pages No:38-42][No of Hits : 377]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The semiconductor diode (SCD) laser is a compact, costeffective, and versatile tool for performing soft tissues applications. The advantage of laser includes a relatively bloodless operating field, sterilization of the wound site, minimal swelling and scaring, reduction of surgical time, and less postoperative pain to the patients in dentistry. This technique is successfully used to evaluate the effects for removal of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation and to assess the color of gingiva pain and wound healing, along with the appearance of gingival repigmentation by clinical and histological examination, in the present study.

Materials and methods: For this purpose, five patients were studied which includes four females and one male, aged between 19 and 40, where four patients were nonsmokers and one was a smoker and found periodontally healthy and had no systemic diseases.

Results: The SCD laser found effective in removing gingival melanin pigmentation, and no bleeding with any significant pain was reported by patients. However, repigmentations were observed with Fontana-Masson staining.

Conclusion: These result pointed out that SCD laser is good and safe for removal of pigmented gingiva without local anesthesia. The postoperative period is comfortable for the patient, and healing is fast and good.

Clinical significance: Semiconductor diode laser is an easy and effective tool for removal of gingiva hyperpigmentation. Ablation of gingival hyperpigmented areas was accomplished without any bleeding complication or slight pain, and no pain was observed which provide clean field during time of procedures, and there was uneventful healing without any complication. No recurrence or slight recurrence of pigmentation had been found in 12-month follow-up.

Keywords: Depigmentation, Hyperpigmentation, Repigmentation, Semiconductor diode laser.

How to cite this article: Gautam A. Semiconductor Diode Laser provides Desirable Smile: A Clinical and Histological Study with 1-year Follow-up. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(2):38-42.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Jan Vokurka, Lydie I Holla, Antonin Fassmann

Erbium Laser in Mucocele Surgery

[Year:2015] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:20] [Pages No:50-52][No of Hits : 377]


ABSTRACT

Mucoceles are benign tumors originating from minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. They are localized most frequently on the lower lip or buccal mucosa. Unintentional lip biting, localized trauma, and orthodontic devices are among the most frequent causes of mucoceles. In this case report, successful treatment of medium-sized mucocele with erbium laser is presented. Benefits as well as potential risks of mucocele surgery are discussed.

Keywords: Chromium: Yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet, Erbium, Erbium laser, Mucocele, Oral mucosa lesion, Soft tissue tumor.

How to cite this article: Vokurka J, H olla LI, Fassmann A . Erbium Laser in Mucocele Surgery. Int J Laser Dent 2015; 5(2):50-52.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Burnice NK Chellathurai, Selvakumar Jayakumar, CS Krishnan, Aazam Ahammed

Diode Laser-assisted Periodontal Esthetic Therapy

[Year:2015] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:32] [Pages No:29-32][No of Hits : 365]


ABSTRACT

The diode laser has become an important dental armamentarium because of its exceptional ease of use and affordability. The lasers have many advantages with regard to periodontal treatment. For all soft tissue procedures, the diode laser functions as the handpiece, just like a dental handpiece for all hard tissue procedures. The main advantages of the diode laser for soft tissue applications are precise surgical procedure, bloodless surgery, sterilization of the surgical site, least possible swelling and scarring, negligible suturing, and practically no pain during and after surgery.
In cosmetic dentistry, providing a desirable smile is one of the main concerns. Hyperpigmentation is one of the esthetic concerns especially in patients with black and discolored gums. Gingival depigmentation can be performed by means of surgical blade, electrosurgery, coarse diamond bur, cryosurgery, or lasers. Bearing in mind the advantages of lasers over other modalities of treatment, the present article will target on the management of such a case using diode lasers.

Keywords: Depigmentation, Diode laser, Esthetic surgery.

How to cite this article: Chellathurai BNK, Jayakumar S, Krishnan CS, Ahammed A. Diode Laser-assisted Periodontal Esthetic Therapy. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(1):29-32.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Ana P Fernandes, Vivien T Sakai, Bella LC Ishikiriama, Fernanda V Oliveira, Natalino Lourenço Neto, Carlos F Santos, Maria AAM Machado, Thais M Oliveira

Low-level Laser Therapy Effects on Pulp Cells from Human Primary Teeth

[Year:2015] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:20] [Pages No:33-37][No of Hits : 360]


ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to verify the influence of different energy densities of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the viability and proliferation of pulp fibroblasts of human primary teeth (HPF). Cultures of fibroblast were irradiated with LLLT according to experimental groups: I (1.2 J/cm2), II (2.5 J/cm2), III (3.7 J/cm2), IV (5.0 J/cm2), V (6.2 J/cm2), and VI (not irradiated). Cell viability was determined 6 and 24 hours after of irradiation using 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl) -2, 5-diphenyl -2H- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell proliferation was assessed through sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay after 24, 48, and 72 hours of irradiation. Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (p < 0.05). After 6 hours of irradiation, group III exhibited the greatest cell viability compared with other groups. After 24 hours, group I exhibited the smallest absorbance value compared with group VI. To cell proliferation, 24 and 48 hours after irradiation, all groups showed similar results to those of group VI. After 72 hours, group I showed lower cell proliferation than the others. Group V exhibited results very similar to those of group VI. This study suggests that different energy densities of LLLT influenced the viability and proliferation of HPF.

Keywords: Cell culture techniques, Cell proliferation, Fibroblats, Laser therapy.

How to cite this article: Fernandes AP, Sakai VT, Ishikiriama BLC, Oliveira FV, Neto NL, Santos CF, Machado MAAM, Oliveira TM. Low-level Laser Therapy Effects on Pulp Cells from Human Primary Teeth. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(2):33-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Arulmozhi Nandakumar, Sudhagar Ganesan, S Shalini

Diode Laser as an Adjuvant in Treating Endo-perio Lesions in Maxillary Incisors

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:3] [Pages:20] [Pages No:68-73][No of Hits : 349]


ABSTRACT

The application of laser in endodontic therapy has been extensively studied. In few cases both periodontal and pulpal disease present simultaneously and pose a significant challenge in diagnosis, treatment planning, as well as healing of the endoperio lesion. This study aims at orderly treating endo-perio lesions with the help of diode laser. The case reports deal with true endodontic and combined endo-perio lesion in maxillary incisors. True endodontic lesion in 11 was treated with root canal obturation after disinfection with diode laser. Combined endo-perio lesion in 21 was treated with root canal obturation assisted by diode disinfection, scaling, and laser curettage and cleaning of periodontal pocket. The procedure resulted in resolution of periodontal pocket depth after 2 months. One year review of both cases showed healing of periapical lesion and maintenance of periodontal health. Diode laser is an excellent tool in handling soft tissues, gingiva, and periodontium due to less tissue shrinkage, less intraoperative time, and reduced postoperative discomfort. Laser disinfection of root canals assists in healing and prognosis in complicated situations. The use of lasers may lead to developing better and predictable treatment protocol for endodontic periodontal lesions.

Keywords: Dental laser, Endo-perio lesion, Laser assisted new attachment procedure, Root canal disinfection.

How to cite this article: Nandakumar A, Ganesan S, Shalini S. Diode Laser as an Adjuvant in Treating Endo-perio Lesions in Maxillary Incisors. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(3):68-73.

Source of support: The team extends its sincere thanks to Dr Dhipak Arthur for his help with photography and our dental assistants, whose support played a pivotal part of our study.

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Mohamad T Kiani, Bahman Derakhshan, Mina Abasi, Shahrooz Shafahifard, Mohammad J Kharazifard

Effect of Low-level Laser Therapy on Neurosensory Disorders Recovery following the Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

[Year:2015] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:20] [Pages No:43-49][No of Hits : 287]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is a technique commonly used to correct mandibular disproportions, while neurosensory disorders are common following this technique. Low-level laser irradiation has shown promising results to relieve the neurosensory disorders of BSSO technique.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low-level laser irradiation on the neurosensory complications related to the BSSO technique.

Materials and methods: In this prospective, double-blinded clinical trial, 13 patients candidate for BSSO surgery were selected and went under complete clinical neurosensory tests (CNTs) including brush stroke discrimination; two-point discrimination; and contact, thermal, and pinprick discrimination, as well as visual analog scale (VAS) assessments. The laser GaAlAs (820–830 ìm wavelength) irradiation was done for total six sessions after surgery for the patients at one side accidentally, and the opposite site was a control by irradiation of placebo. The values of CNT assessments between the experimental and control sites were analyzed employing Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Results: Higher values of VAS and brush stroke discrimination test were observed in the laser-irradiated sites than in the control sites, although without any significant differences (p > 0.05). Moreover, significantly higher values of pinprick discrimination test were noted in the experimental sites on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 28, and 60 (p < 0.05). The thermal test results were higher in the study sides, and the differences of both sides were significant on days 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: In total, GaAlAs low-level laser irradiation after the BSSO surgery results in both subjective and objective improvements regarding the time and magnitude of return of function; however, in some tests no significant differences were found between laser-irradiated and control areas.

Keywords: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, Low-level laser, Neurosensory disorders.

How to cite this article: Kiani MT, Derakhshan B, Abasi M, Shafahifard S, Kharazifard MJ. Effect of Low-level Laser Therapy on Neurosensory Disorders Recovery following the Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(2):43-49.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Abhishek Gautam

Semiconductor Diode Laser provides Desirable Smile: A Clinical and Histological Study with 1-year Follow-up

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:3] [Pages:20] [Pages No:53-57][No of Hits : 241]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The semiconductor diode (SCD) laser is compact, cost-effective, and versatile tool for performing soft tissues applications. The advantage of laser includes a relatively bloodless operating field, sterilization of the wound site, minimal swelling and scaring, reduction of surgical time, and less postoperative pain to the patients in dentistry. This technique is successfully used to evaluate the effects for removal of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation and to assess the color of gingiva pain, wound healing along with the appearance of gingival repigmentation by clinical and histological examination in the present study.

Materials and methods: For this purpose, 5 patients were studied, which includes four females and one male, age between 19 and 40 in which four patients were nonsmokers and one was smoker found periodontally healthy and had no systemic diseases.

Results: The SCD laser found effective in removing gingival melanin pigmentation as well as no bleeding with any significant pain was reported by patients. However, repigmentations were observed with Fontana-Masson staining.

Conclusion: These results pointed out that SCD is good and safe for removal of pigmented gingiva without local anesthesia. The postoperative period is comfortable for the patient and healing is fast and good.

Clinical significance: The SCD laser is easy and effectively used for gingiva hyperpigmentation removal. Ablation of gingival hyperpigmented areas was accomplished without any bleeding complication or slight pain or no pain observed, which provide clean field during time of procedures, uneventful healing without any complication. No recurrence or slight recurrence of pigmentation had been found in 12 months follow-up.

Keywords: Depigmentation, Hyperpigmentation, Repigmentation, Semiconductor diode.

How to cite this article: Gautam A. Semiconductor Diode Laser provides Desirable Smile: A Clinical and Histological Study with 1-year Follow-up. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(3):53-57.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Baskaran Muthiah, Varun Muthuraman

Carbon Dioxide Laser-assisted Giant Sialolith Removal from Wharton’s Duct

[Year:2015] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:32] [Pages No:26-28][No of Hits : 210]


ABSTRACT

Carbon dioxide laser is a highly effective tool for numerous intraoral surgical procedures. Its use for sialolithotomy has been well documented in the literature because of its ability to achieve hemostasis at the time of incision of the Wharton’s duct and the painless nature of the procedure requiring just topical anesthesia or local anesthetic nerve block at the most. As carbon dioxide laser has a high absorption coefficient for water, saliva in the oral cavity acts as a substrate and hence the deeper penetration of the beam and subsequent injury to adjacent structures is prevented. We describe a case of a giant sialolith of the Wharton’s duct, which was successfully removed by carbon dioxide laser-assisted sialolithotomy.

Keywords: Absorption coefficient, Carbon dioxide laser, Giant sialolith.

How to cite this article: Muthiah B, Muthuraman V. Carbon Dioxide Laser-assisted Giant Sialolith Removal from Wharton’s Duct. Int J Laser Dent 2015;5(1):26-28.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2015] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:20] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 147]


ABSTRACT

Greetings from the dynamic World of Laser Dentistry!!!

Lasers in dentistry have been used for more than 2 decades. The long- term results and stability of tissues observed over the years are very encouraging.


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2015] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:32] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 105]


ABSTRACT

Greetings from the dynamic World of Laser Dentistry!!!

Today there is far more acceptance of the patient-friendly procedures and a widening horizon of permitted uses with lasers for the dental professional. Some countries, like South Korea, now allow the dental professionals to do facial and skin rejuvenation treatments with lasers. These along with facial botox and fillers have widened the scope offered by the dentists in their practices. This is a very good trend and has positive implications for the future of dentistry.


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:3] [Pages:20] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 81]


ABSTRACT

The penetration of lasers in dental practice has increased quite dramatically in the last few years. Unfortunately, this has not really translated into laser education penetration in the dental community.


 
Editorial
Suchetan Pradhan

Editorial

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:24] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 431]


ABSTRACT

It is that time of year again friends, when we have to announce our biannual conference. This time the city is our capital, New Delhi. So, friends be prepared to have fun-filled learning experiences from 10th to 13th of September.



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